Int. J. Biosci.11(1), 176-181, July 2017
Alternative to antibiotics, irradiation is an interesting area of poultry feed research. Present study was conducted to find out the effect of gamma irradiation on the biochemical and microbiological parameters of antibiotic free broiler feed packed in 2 layered bags (PP+PE) in comparison to the local bags (PP) used for the packing of poultry feed. Results indicated that solubility of iron increased as a result of irradiation and 2 layered packaging while solubility of P was much higher than that of Fe. Sodium solubility increased in both the packaging. Among the irradiated samples the highest value of Potassium solubility was recorded in the 2 layered packing. Irradiation reduced the bacterial as well as the fungal load of the samples in both the packing materials while none of the factors brought significant changes in peroxide value of oil.
AACC. 1999. Approved methods of the American Association of cereal Chemists. St. Paul Minnesota USA.
Al-Bachir M, Othman T. 2013. Use of irradiation to control microorganisms and extend the refrigerated market life of chicken sausage. Innovative Romanian Food Biotechnology 13, 63-70.
AOAC. 2000. Association of official analytical chemists, Official methods of analysis. 17th Ed., Maryland USA.
Baptista RF, Lemos M, Vital HC, Carneiro CE, Marsio ET, Conte Jr CA, Mano SB. 2014. Microbiological quality and biogenic amines in ready-to-eat grilled chicken fillets under vacuum packing, freezing, and high-dose irradiation. Poultry Science 93, 1571-1577.
Barton MD. 2000. Antibiotic use in animal feed and its impact on human health. Nutrition Research Reviews 13, 279-299.
Carlson MS, Fangman TJ. 2000. Swine antibiotics and feed additives: food safety considerations. In: MU Guide, Agriculture, G2353, University of Missouri Extension Columbia.
Dell BL, Debol and AR, Yohann SRK. 1972. Distribution of phytase and nutritionally important elements among the morphological components of cereal grains. Journal of Agricultural & Food Chemistry 20, 718-722.
Duhan A, Khetarpaul N, Bishnoi S. 2002. Changes in phytates and HCl extractability of calcium, phosphorus, and iron of soaked, dehulled, cooked, and sprouted pigeon pea cultivar (UPAS-120). Plant Foods for Human Nutrition 57, 275-284.
Duhan A, Khetarpaul N, Bishnoi S. 2002. Content of phytic acid and HCl-extractability of calcium, phosphorus and iron as affected by various domestic processing and cooking methods. Food Chemistry 78, 9-14.
Falcao CL, Castro SL, Maertens L, Marounek M, Pinheiro V, Freire J, Mourao JL. 2007. Alternatives to antibiotic growth promoters in rabbit feeding: A review. World Rabbit Science 15, 127-140.
Goforth RL, Goforth CR. 2000. Appropriate regulation of antibiotics in livestock feed. Boston College Environmental Affairs Law Review 28, 39-78.
IAEA. 1970. Microbiological specification and testing methods for irradiated foods. Tech. Report series No. 104. IEAE Vienna.
Maciorowski KG, Herrera P, Jones FT, Pillai SD, Ricke SC. 2007. Effects on poultry and livestock of feed contamination with bacteria and fungi. Animal Feed Science & Technology 133, 109-136.
Mantilla SPS, Santos EB, Freitas MQ, Vital HC, Mano SB, Franc RM. 2012. Refrigerated poultry breast fillets packed in modified atmosphere and irradiated: Bacteriological evaluation, shelf life and sensory acceptance. Brazilian Journal of Microbiology 43, 1385-1393.
Osman GAM, Diab EE, Mahmoud NS, Elagib RAA, Rushdi MAH, Hassan AB. 2012. Effect of gamma irradiation and storage on fungal growth, aflatoxin production and quality characteristics of groundnuts. Tropentag 2012, Gottingen Germany.
Saharan K, Khetarpaul N, Bishnoi S. 2001. HCl extractability of minerals from rice bean and faba bean: influence of domestic processing methods. Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies 2, 323-325.
Silva ACDO, Oliveira LAT, Jesus EFO, Cortez MAS, Alves CCC, Monteiro MLG, Junior CAC. 2015. Effect of gamma irradiation on the bacteriological and sensory analysis of raw whole milk under refrigeration. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation. DOI: 10.1111/jfpp.12490.
Steel RGD, Torrie JH. 1980. Principles and procedures of statistics. New York Mc Graw.
Van Berneveld RJ. 1999. Physical and chemical contaminants in grains used in livestock feed. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 50, 807-823.