Effect of nitrogen, phosphorus and zinc on maize hybrid and their carry over effect on faba bean

Paper Details

Research Paper 01/01/2017
Views (357) Download (271)

Effect of nitrogen, phosphorus and zinc on maize hybrid and their carry over effect on faba bean

Imranuddin, Shad Khan Khalil
Int. J. Biosci.10( 1), 256-269, January 2017.
Certificate: IJB 2017 [Generate Certificate]


Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Zinc are main and expensive inputs in crop production. But the repeated excessive used of these fertilizer are costly and may harmful for environment. A considerable amount of nutrient is left unutilized and may have positive impact on subsequent crop. A two years experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of nitrogen (N) phosphorus (P) and zinc (Zn) on maize hybrid and their carry over effect on subsequent faba bean at the University of Agriculture, Peshawar, Pakistan during 2013-2014 and 2014-2015. Randomize complete block (RCB) design having three replication was used. Three levels of N (150, 200 and 250 kg ha-1), P (75, 125 and 175 kg ha-1) and Zn (5, 10, 15 kg ha-1) along with control were applied to maize followed by faba bean grown on same plots without fertilizer application. Days to emergence of faba bean were significantly affected by year. More days to emergence of faba bean were recorded in 2013-2014 compared to 2014-2015. Days to maturity (DM) and biological yield (BY) of maize were significantly enhanced with each increment of N, P and Zn and maximum BY was recorded at N (250 kg N  ha-1), P (175 kg p ha-1) and Zn (15 kg Zn ha-1) across both years. The DM were higher with 250 kg N ha-1, 75 kg P ha-1 and 15 kg Zn ha-1. These elements significantly enhanced days to flowering (DF) and BY of subsequent faba bean. It is concluded that 250 kg N ha-1, 175 kg P ha-1 and 15 kg Zn ha-1 performed better and recommended for obtaining maximum BY of maize and subsequent faba bean.


Abid H, Rasheed M, Mahmood T. 2003. Growth analysis of hybrid maize as influenced by planting technique and nutrient management. International Journal of Agriculture and Biological Sciences 5(2), l59 -171.

Akmal M, Hameed-ur-Rehman, Farhatuallah, Asim M, Akbar H. 2010. Response of maize varieties to nitrogen application for leaf area profile, crop growth and yield components. Pakistan Journal of Botany, 42, 1941-1947.

Asif  M, Saleem F, Anjum F, Wahid SA, Bilal MF. 2013 Effect of nitrogen and zinc sulphate on growth and yield of maize. Journal of Agriculture Research, 51(4), 455–464.

Bremner JM, Mulvaney CS. 1982. Nitrogen-total. In A. L. Page., R.H. Miller., and D. R. Keenay. Methods of soil analysis. Part 22nd. Agronomy 9, 595-621.

Brennan RF. 2001. Residual value of zinc fertilizer for produc­tion of wheat. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 41. http://dx.doi.org/541–547.      http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/EA00139

Cakmak I. 2008. Enrichment of cereal grains with zinc: Agronomic or genetic biofortification. Plant and Soil, 302, 1-17.

Cisar GD, Synder GH, Swanson GS. 1992. Nitrogen, P and K fertilization for Histosols grown st. Augustine grass sod. Agronomy Journal 84(3), 475-479.

Corbeels M, Hofman G, Cleemput OV. 1998. Residual effect of nitrogen fertilization in a wheat-sunflower cropping sequence on a vertisol under semi-arid Mediterranean conditions. European Journal Agronomy 9(3), 109-116.

Daba S, Zewedie E. 2001. Evaluation of the residual value of phosphorus fertilizer for sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) grown on avertisol. Bodenkultur, 52: 175–81.

Dahal S, Karki TB,  Amgain LP, Bhattachan BK. 2014. Tillage and residue, fertilizer and weed management on phenology and yield of spring maize in Terai, Nepal. International Journal of Applied Science and Biotechnology 2(3), 328-335. http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ijasbt.v2i3.11001

Dawadi R, Sah SK. 2012. Growth and yield of hybrid maize (zea mays l.) in relation to planting density and nitrogen levels during winter season in Nepal. Tropical Agriculture Research 23(3), 218- 227. http://dx.doi.org/10.4038/tar.v23i3.4659

Eijk DVD, Janssen BH, Oenema O. 2006. Initial and residual effects of fertilizer phosphorus and maize yields on phosphorus fixing soils.  Agriculture Ecosystem and Environment. 116 (2): 104-120. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2006.03018

El-Sheikh FT. 1998. Effect of soil application of nitrogen and foliar application with manganese on grain yield and quality of maize (Zea mays L.). Proc. 8th Conference Agron., Suez Canal University Ismailia, Egypt, 28-29 Nov., 182-189 p.

Enyisi S, Uman VJ, whong CMG, Abdullahi IO, Alabi O. 2014. Chemical and nutritional value of maize and maize products obtained from selected markets in Kadnna state, Nigeria. African Journal of food Science and Technology 5(4), 100-104.

Haque M, Hamid MA, Bhuiyan NI. 2001. Nutrient uptake and productivity as affected by nitrogen and potassium application levels in maize/sweet potato intercropping system”. Korean Journal of Crop Sciences 46(1), 1-5.

Hosseini SM. 2006. Zinc- Boron interaction effects on yield, yield components and chemical composition of wheat. The 18th World Congress of Soil Science.

Hussain MA, Mukhtar T, Kayani MZ. 2011. Efficacy evaluation of Azadirachta indica, Calotropis procera, Datura stramonium and Tageteserectaa gainst root-knot nematodes Meloidogyne incognita. Pakistan Journal of Botany, 43, 197-204.

Kaleem SH, Ansar M, Ali MA, Sher A, Ahmad G, Rashid M. 2009. Effect of phosphours on the yield and yield component of wheat varietyINQLAB-91 under rain fed conditions. Sarhad Journal of Agriculture 25(1), 21-24.

Kaya C, Higgs DEB. 2002. Response of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) cultivars to foliar application of zinc when grown in sand culture at low zinc. Sci. Hortic. 93, 53–64.

Kenbaev B, Sade B. 2002. Response of field-grown barley cultivars grown on zinc deficient soil to zinc application. Comm. Soil Sci. Plant Anal., 33, 533-544. http://dx.doi.org/10.1081/CSS-120002762

Khalil SK, ShahP. 2008. Crop growth stages. In: Crop Science, Practical manual. 1st Ed. 113 p.

Khalil SK, Khan S, Rahman A, Khan AZ, Khalil IH, Amanullah, Wahab S, Mohammad F, Nigar S, Zubair M, Parveen S, Khan A. 2010. Seed priming and phosphorus application enhance phenology and dry matter production of wheat. Pakistan Journal ofBotany 42, 1849-1856.

Khaliq T, Mahmood T, Masood A. 2004. Effectiveness of farmyard manure, poultry manure and nitrogen for corn (Zea mays L.) productivity. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology 2,  260-263.

Khan F, Khan S, Fahad S, Faisal S, Hussain S, Ali S, Ali A. 2014. Effect of different levels of nitrogen and phosphorus on the phenology and yield of maize varieties. American Journal of Plant Science 5, 2582-2590. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/ajps.2014.517272

Moser SB, Feil B, Jampatong S, Stamp P. 2006. Effects of pre-anthesis drought, nitrogen fertilizer rate and variety on grain yield, yield components, and harvest index of tropical maize. Agriculture Water Management 81, 41-58. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2005.04.005

Memon KS. 2001. Soil and fertilizer phosphorus. In: E. Bashir and R. Bental (eds.) Soil Science, PP 306-7.National Book Foundation Islamabad, Pakistan.

MINFA. 2013. Agricultural Statistics of Pakistan, Ministry of Food Agriculture and Livestock Economic Wing, Islamabad.

Ortiz-Monasterio JI, Sayre S, Rajaram, Mc-Mahon M. 1997. Genetic progress in wheat yield and nitrogen use efficiency under four nitrogen rates. Crop Science 37, 898-904.

Osava M. 2007. Farming faces phosphate. July 15-17, 1990. NFDC, Islamabad, Pakistan, 93-192 p.

Pala M, Armstrong E, Johansen C. 2000. Linking research marketing opportunities for pulses in the 21st century. In: Proc. of the 3rd International Food Legumes Research Conference, 22-26 September 1997, (Ed.): R. Knight Adelaide, Australia.

Sahoo SC, Panda M. 2001. Effect of Phosphorus and detassseling on yield of baby corn. The Indian Journal of Agriculture Science 71, 21-22.

Sahrawat KL. 2000. Elemental composition of the rice plant as affected by iron toxicity under field conditions. Communications in Soil Science and plant Analysis 31, 2819-2827. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00103620009370630

Saleem R, Randhawa MS, Hussain S, Wahid MA, Anjum SA. 2009. Nitrogen management studies in autumn planted maize hybrid. Journal of animal and Plant Science 19(3), 140-143.

Samira M, Hussein A, Haikel MA,El-Masry MA. 1998. Effect of some preceding crops   hill spacing and nitrogen fertilization on yield attributes and grain yield of maize under reclaimed sandy soil conditions in East Delta. Proc. 8th Conf. Agron., Suez Canal University Ismailia, Egypt, 28-29 Nov. 174-181 p.

Shanahan JF. 2011. Determining optimum nitrogen rate for maize. Crop Insights, 21(2) pioneer hi-bred, Johnston, Iowa, online.

Shenoy VV, Kalagudi GM. 2005. Enhancing plant phosphorus use efficiency for sustainable cropping. Biotechnology Advances 23, 501-513. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biotechadv.2005.01.00.4

Singaram P, KotharIdaraman GV. 1994. Studies on residual, direct and cumulative effect of phosphorous source on the availability, content and uptake of phosphorus and yield of maize. Madras Agriculture Journal 81425-429.

Singh BR, Krogstad T,  Shivay YS, Shivakumar B, Bakkegard GM. 2000. Phosphorus fractionation and sorption in P-enriched soils of Norway. Nutrient Cycling in Agro ecosystem 73, 245-256. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10705-005-2650-z

Soltonpour PN, Scheab AP. 1977. A new soil test for simultaneous extraction of macro and micronutrients in alkaline soils. Communication in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 8, 195-207.

Steel RGD, Torrie JH, Dickey D. 1997. Principles and procedures of statistics: A Biometrics Approach, 2nd ed. McGraw-Hill, New York.

Tandon HLS. 1992. Phosphorus Research in India. In: Proc. of Symp. On “Role of Phosphorus in Crop Production.”

Tisdale SL, Nelson WL, Beaton JD, Havlin JL. 1993. Soil Fertility and Fertilizers. 5th edition. Macmillan Publishing Company. 634 p.

Whitney DA. 1998. Micronutrients: Zinc, Iron, Manganese and Copper. 41-44 p. In J.R. Brown (Ed.), Recommended Chemical Soil Test Procedures for the North Central Region. North Central Regional Publ. 221 (revised). Mo. Ag. Expt. Sta., Columbia, MO.

Ziaeyan AH, Rajaie M. 2009. Combined effect of zinc and boron on yield and nutrients accumulation in corn. International Journal of Plant Production 3(3), 35-44. http://dx.doi.org/10.22069/ijpp.2012.650

Zubair M, Bakhat J, Shafi M, Khan MJ. 2009. Effect of methods and levels of nitrogen application on wheat varieties. Ms.c (Hons) Thesis, Department of Agronomy, Agriculture University Peshawar, 43-44 p.