J. Bio. Env. Sci.11( 1), 63-68, July 2017
To address the role of the gene HpPKS1 in the biosynthesis of hyperforin in St. John’s wort, we analyzed the effect of different concentrations of salicylic acid on the expression of this gene via qRT-PCR method. To do this, the calli resulted from the leaf explants of in vitro grown plants were treated under three concentrations of salicylic acid (0, 100 and 250 µM) and the expression pattern of the gene HpPKS1 was evaluated after 24, 48 and 72 hours. The results demonstrated that with increasing the concentration of salicylic acid, the expression of the gene showed a significant increment 24 and 48 hours after treatment; while after 72 hours a decrease was observed in all concentrations. Furthermore, in all time durations, the expression of HpPKS1 was increased with raising the concentration of salicylic acid, so that the maximum activity of the gene was witnessed at 250 µM salicylic acid.
Arikat NA, Jawad FM, Karam NS, Shibli RA. 2004. Micropropagation and accumulation of essential oils in wild sage (Salvia fruticosa Mill). Scientia Horticulturae 100, 193-202.
Arnholdt B. 2000. RAPD analysis: A method to investigate aspects of the reproductive biology of Hypericum perforatum L. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 100, 906-911.
Dong X. 2004. NPR1, All things considered. Current Opinion in Plant Biology 7, 547-552.
Durrant WE, Dong X. 2004. Systemic acquired resistance. Annual Review of Phytopathology 42, 185-209.
Filandrinos D, Yentsch TR, Meyers KL. 2006. Herbal Products: Toxicology and Clinical Pharmacology. New York, US: Humana Press Inc p. 71-95.
Gadzovska S, Maury S, Ounnar S, Righezza M, Kascakova S, Refregiers M, Spasenoski M, Joseph C, Hagege D. 2005. Identification and quantification of hypericin and pseudohypericin in different Hypericum perforatum L. in vitro culture. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 43, 591-601.
Hasanloo T, Sepehrifar R, Rahnama H, Shams M. 2009. Evaluation of the yeast-extract signaling pathway leading to silymarin biosynthes in milk thistle hairy root culture. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 25, 1901-1909.
Hayat Q, Hayat SH, Irfan M, Ahmad A. 2010. Effect of exogenous salicylic acid under changing environment: A review. Environmental and Experimental Botany 68, 14-25.
Hazen SP, Wu Y, Kerps JA. 2003. Gene expression profiling of plant responses to abiotic stress. Functional and Integrative Genomics 3, 105-111.
Karppinen K. 2010. Biosynthesis of hypericins and hyperforins in Hypericum perforatum L. (St . John’s Wort)- Precursors and genes involved. PhD thesis, University of OULU, Finland 18-47.
Medina MA, Martynez-Poveda B, Amores-Sznchez MI, Quesada AR. 2006. Hyperforin: More than an antidepressant bioactive compound? Life Sciences 79, 105-111.
Mueller MJ, Brodschelm W, Spannagl E, Zenk MH. 1993. Signaling in the elicitation process is mediated through the octadecanoid pathway leading to jasmonic acid. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 90, 7490–7494.
Murashige T, Skoog F. 1962. A revised medium for rapid growth and bioassays with tobacco tissue cultures. Journal of Plant Physiology 15, 473-497.
Pieterse C, Van-Loon LC. 2004. NPR1: the spider in the web of induced resistance signaling pathways. Current Opinion in Plant Biology 7, 456-464.
Raskin I. 1992. Role of salicylic acid in plants. Annual Review of Plant Physiology and Plant Molecular Biology 43, 439-463.
Sanches CC, Prado B, Rabanal RM. 2002. Antidepressant effects of the methanol extract of several Hypericum species from the Canary Islands. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 79, 119-127.
Scragg AH. 1986. The economics of mass cell culture. In: Morris P, Scragg AH, Stafford A, Fowler MW. Eds. Secondary metabolism in plant cell cultures. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press p. 202-207.
Sharma S, Rathi N, Kamal B, Pundir D, Kaur B, Arya S. 2010. Conservation of biodiversity of highly important medicinal plants of India through tissue culture technology. Agriculture and Biology Journal of North America 1, 827-833.
Sirvent T, Gibson D. 2002. Induction of hypericins and hyperforin in Hypericum perforatum L. in response to biotic and chemical elicitors. Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology 60, 311-320.
Wang Y, Feng G, Wang J, Zhou Y, Liu Y, Shi Y, Li Z. 2015. Differential effects of tumor necrosis factor-α on matrix metalloproteinase-2 expression in human myometrial and uterine leiomyoma smooth muscle cells. Human Reproduction 30(1), 61-70.