Int. J. Biosci.12( 6), 245-257, June 2018
Salinity is considered as the most important abiotic stress limiting crop production and plants are known to be able continuing survive under this stress by involving many mechanisms. In this content, the present study was carried out to evaluate the impact of NaCl on some morpho- physiological and anatomical parameters in two sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) varieties: Super marconi and Marconi. So, an experiment of eight months was carried out underStandard room at and stress is induced by NaCl at 4 concentrations (0, 25, 50, and 150mMol/l). Results showed that increasing salinity stress, for all cultivars, decreased stems (length, fresh and dry weights) and leaves (number and area).As the salinity increased, proline concentration and leaf total soluble sugars also increased significantly compared with the control. The results showed that the accumulation of proline and soluble sugars are good indicators of salinity tolerance. Results also suggest that the plant resists against salinity through osmotic adjustment and ion absorption and sharing within its cells. This process is essential for the survival of plants in salineMicroscopic study demonstrated that .salinity stress significantly decreased cortex thickness because of salinity stress while xylem grown under salinity stress especially high level of salinity .Additionally. There were changed in xylem creation and construction in stressed plants. It is concluded that the variety Super Marconi (Sp) is more tolerant to salinity compared to the variety Marconi (M). Hence, they have a significant role to play in agriculture, food, and economy.
Abernethy GA, Fountain DW, McManus MT.1998. Observations on the leaf anatomy of Festuca novae-zelandiae and biochemical responses to a water deficit. N Z J Bot36:113-123
Aguirre-Medina JF, Acosta GallegosJA, del. Ruiz Posadas L, Shibata JK, Trejo Lopez C .2002. Morphological differences on the leaf epidermis of common bean and their relationship to drought tolerance. Agricultura technical en Mexico 28,53-64.
Abdul JC, Gopi R, Sankar B, Manivannan P, Kishorekumar A, Sridharan R, Panneerselvam R. 2007.Studies on germination, seeding vigour lipid peroxidation and proline metabolism in Catharanthus roseus, seedings under salt stress.Journal.Botanic.73,190-195.
Ashraf M, Orooj A. 2006. Salt stress effects on growth, ion accumulation and seed oil concentration in an arid zone traditional medicinal plant ajwain (Trachyspermum ammi L.) Sprague. Journal. Arid Environ. 64,209-220.
Bethke PC, DrewMC. 1992. Stomatal and nonstomatal components to inhibition of photosynthesis in leaves of Capsicum annuumduring progressive exposure to NaCl salinity. Plant Physiology 99,219-226.
Bates LS, Waldren RP, Treare ID.1973. Rapid determination of free proline for water stress studies. Plant Soil 39,205-207.
Bethke PC, Drew MC. 1992. Stomatal and nonstomatal components to inhibition of photosynthesis in leaves of Capsicum annuumduring progressive exposure to NaCl salinity. Plant Physiology 99,219-226.
Binzel ML, Reuveni M. 1994. Cellular mechanisms of salt tolerance in plant cells. Horticultural Reviews 16,33-69.
Bray EA, Bailey-Serres, Weretilnyk E. 2000. Responses to abiotic stress. In: Buchanan B, Gruissem W and Jones R (eds.), Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Plants. American Society of Plant Physiology , Rockville, 1158-1203.
Bohnert HJ, Shen B.1999. Transformation and compatible solutes. Scientia Horticulturaeourn. 78,237-260.
Chartzoulakis K, Klapaki G. 2000. Response of two greenhouse pepper hybrids to NaCl salinity during different growth stages. Scientia Horticulturae 86, 247-260.
BohnertHJ, Shen B. 1999. Transformation and compatible solutes.Sci. Hortic.78, 237-260.
Chartzoulakis K, Klapaki G. 2000. Response of two greenhouse pepper hybrids to NaCl salinity during different growth stages. Scientia Horticulturae 86,247-260.
CachorroP, Ortiz A, Barcelo AR, Cerda A.1993. Lignin deposition in vascular tissues of Phaseolus vulgaris roots in response to salt stress. Phyton-Ann Rei Bot 33,33-40.
Chaves MM, Maroco JP, Pereira JS.2003. Understanding plant response to drought: from genes to the whole plant. Funct. Plant Biology. 30: 239-264.
Christensen JH, Bauw G, Welinder KG,Van Montagu M, Boerjan W. 1998. Purification and characterization of peroxidases correlated with lignification in poplar xylem. Plant Physiol 118:125-135.
Essa TA.2002. Effect of salinity stress on growth and nutrient composition of three soybeans (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) cultivars. J Agronomy and Crop Sci188,86-93.
FAO.2000. Irrigation in Latin America and The Caribbean in figures. Water Reports 20. FAO, Rome. 348 p.
FAO.2002. Crops and drops: Making the best use of water for agriculture. FAO, Rome. 22 p.
Grattan SR, Grieve CM. 1999.Salinity mineral nutrient relations in horticultural crops. Scientia Horticulturae 78,127-157.
Gregory PJ. 2004. Agronomic approaches to increasing water use efficiency.
Gilbert GA, Gadush MV, Wilson C, Madore MA.1998. Amino acid accumulation in sink and source tissues of Coleus blumei Benth. during salinity stress. Journal. Exp. Bot. 49,107-114.
Gossett DR, Lucas MC.1994. Antioxidant response to NaCl stress in salt tolerant and salt sensitive cultivars of cotton.Crop Sciences.34,706-714.
Hamdy A. 1999.Saline irrigation and management for a sustainable use. In: Advanced Short Course on Saline Irrigation Proceeding, Agadir: 152-227.
Hajar AS, Zidan MA, Al-Zahrani HS.1996. Effect of salinity stress on the germination, growth and some physiological activities of black cumin (Nigella sativa L.). Arab Gulf. Journal. Scence i. Reserche. 14,445-454.
Kirnak H, Kaya C, Higgs D, Tas I. 2003. Responses of drip irrigated bell pepper to water stress and different nitrogen levels with or without mulch cover. Journal of Plant Nutrition 26,263-277.
Kao WY, Tsai T, Shih CN.2003.Photosynthetic gas exchange and chlorophyll a fluorescence of three wild soybean species in response to NaCl treatments. Photosynthetica .41,415-419.
Kirst GO.1989.Salinity tolerance of eukaryotic marine algae. Plant Molecular Biology . 40:21-53
Li X, An P,Inanaga S, Eneji AE, Tanabe K. 2006.Salinity and Defoliation Effects on Soybean Growth. J Plant Nutr 29,1499-1508.
Locher J, Ombodi A, Kassai T, Dimeny J. 2005. Influence of coloured mulches on soil temperature and yield of sweet pepper. European Journal of Horticultural Science 70, 135-141.
Iyengar ERR, Patolia JS, Kurian T. 1977. Varietal difference of barley to salinity. Z Pflanzen Physio. l84,355-362.
Munns R. 2002. Comparative physiology of salt and water stress. Plant Cell and Environment 25,239-250.
Munns R.2002. Comparative physiology of salt and water stress. Plant Cell.Environ.25,239-250.
Meloni DA, Gulotta MR, Martinez CA. 2008. Salinity tolerance inSchinopsis quebracho colorado: Seed germination, growth, ion relations and metabolic responses. Journal. Arid Environ. 72, 1785-1792.
Richardson SG, Mc Cree KJ. 1985. Carbon balance and water relations of sorghum exposed to salt and water stress. Plant Physiol. 79,1015-1020.
SagiM, Savidov NA, Vov NPL, Lips SH.1997. Nitrate reductase and molybdenum cofactor in annual ryegrass as affected by salinity and nitrogen source. Physiol Plant. 99,546-553.
SharifiM, Ghorbanli M, Ebrahimzadeh H. 2007. Improved growth of salinity-stressed soybean after inoculation with salt pre-treated mycorrhizal fungi. J Plant Physiol164,1144-1151.
Siwek P, Cebula S, Libik A, Mydlarz J. 1994. The effect of mulching on changes in microclimate and on the growth of yield of sweet pepper grown in plastic tunnels. Acta Horticulture 366,161-167.
Stewart EA.1989. Analysis of vegetation and other organic material. In: Acad. Press, New York. 46-60 p.
Trout TJ.2000. Environmental effects of irrigated agriculture. Acta Horticulturae 537,605-610. Van Derwerken, J.E., and D.
Uـnlükara A,Cemek B, Karaman S, Erşahin S. 2008. Response of lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. crispa) to salinity of irrigation water. New Zealand J Crop Hort Sci. 36,265-273.