Effect of soaking with chitosan and proline under salinity on germination and physiological characters of wheat

Paper Details

Research Paper 01/08/2021
Views (542) Download (30)

Effect of soaking with chitosan and proline under salinity on germination and physiological characters of wheat

AA Kandil, AEM Sharief, WAE Abido, SRHA El-Bardisy
Int. J. Agron. Agri. Res.19( 2), 10-21, August 2021.
Certificate: IJAAR 2021 [Generate Certificate]


A laboratory experiment was carried out at Central Laboratories in Central Administration for Seed Testing and Certification, Ministry of Agriculture, Egypt, during January 2019 to investigate the effect of soaking with chitosan and proline levels under salinity stress on wheat germination and physiological characters. The experiment was conducted in factorial experiment in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replications. The experiment included three factors. The first factor included four levels of soaking with chitosan (0.00, 0.25, 0.50 and 0.75%). The second factor integrated with five levels of soaking with proline (0, 1, 5, 9 and 13mM). The third factor incorporated with four levels of salinity i.e. without salinity (0), 4, 8 and 12dSm-1 of NaCl. The results indicated that the highest germination and physiological characters were resulted from soaking in chitosan at 0.75%, followed by soaking in chitosan at 0.50%. The highest values of germination and physiological characters were produced from soaking wheat seeds in proline at 13mM, followed soaking in proline at 9mM. Increasing salinity levels from 0 to 4, 8 and 12dSm-1 of NaCl significantly reduced germination characters and physiological indices of wheat. It could be concluded that for maximizing germination and physiological parameters of bread wheat Shandaweel 1 cultivar under salinity stress, it could be recommended to soaking with the mixture of chitosan at the rate of 0.75 or 0.50% and proline at the rates of 13 or 9mM for 6 h.


Aboonlertnirun S, Sirikesorn L. 2018. Effect of chitosan as seed soaking on enzyme activity and germination of rice under high day/night temperature. Intern. J. of Adv. in Sci. Eng. and Tech 6(1), 2321-8991.

Afzal I, Basra SMA, Farooq M, Nawaz A. 2006. Alleviation of salinity stress in spring wheat by hormonal priming with ABA, salicylic acid and ascorbic acid. Int. J. Agri. Bio 8(1), 23-28.

Alom R, Abu Hasan M, Rabiul Islam M, Wang QF. 2016. Germination characters and early seedling growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes under salt stress conditions. J. Crop Sci. Biot 19(5), 383-392.

Al-Saady HAA. 2015. Germination and growth of wheat plants (Triticum aestivum L.) under salt stress. J. of Pharma. Chem. Bio. Sci 3(3), 416-420.

Ashraf MY, Hussain F, Akhtar J, Gul A, Ross M, Ebert G. 2008. Effect of different sources and rates of nitrogen and supra optimal level of potassium fertilization on growth, yield and nutrient. Pakistan J. Bot 40(4), 1521-1531.

Cox TD. 2006. Germination of five wheat varieties over a range of salinities. Centaurs 14, 15-18.

Datta JK, Nag S, Banerjee A, Mondal NK. 2009. Impact of salt stress on five varieties of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars under laboratory condition. J. Appl. Sci. Environ. Man 13(3), 93-97.

El-Leboudi AE, Gawish ShM, Abdel-Aziz SM, Ahmed RM. 1997. Some metabolic aspects in wheat plants subjected to salinity. Ann. of Agric. Sci. Cairo 42, 585-596.

Ellis RA, Roberts EH. 1981.The quantification of ageing and survival in orthodox seeds. Seed Sci. and Technol 9, 373-409.

Errabii T, Gandonou CB, Essalmani H, Abrini J, Idaomar M, Skalisenhaji N. 2006. Growth, proline and ion accumulation in sugarcane callus cultures under drought-induced osmotic stress and its subsequent relief. African J. of Biotech 5, 1488-1493.

FAO. 2020. Food and Agriculture Organization. Faostat, FAO Statistics Division, April, 2020. http://www.fao.org/faostat/en/#data /QC.

Fercha A, Gherroucha H. 2014. The role of osmoprotectants and antioxidant enzymes in the differential response of durum wheat genotypes to salinity. J. of Appli. Bot. and food Quality 87, 74-79.

Ghaffari H, Tadayon MR. 2017. Effect of proline on seed germination indices of castile sugar beet cultivar seed germination criteria under drought stress. Iranian J. of Seed Sci. and Tech 7(2), 171-182.

Gomez KA, Gomez AA. 1984. Statistical Procedures for Agricultural Research. 2nd Ed., Jhon Wiley and Sons Inc., New York pp, 95-109.

Habibi A, Abdoli M. 2013. Influence of salicylic acid pre-treatment on germination, vigor and growth parameters of garden cress (Lepidium sativum) seedlings under water potential loss at salinity stress. Int. Res. J. Appl. Basic. Sci 4(6), 1493-1499.

Hameed A, Sheikh MA, Hameed A, Farooq T, Basra SMA, Jamil A. 2013. Chitosan priming enhances the seed germination, antioxidants, hydrolytic enzymes, soluble proteins and sugars in wheat seeds. Agrochimica, Vol. LVII – N. 1, 32-46.

Hameed A, Sheikh MA, Hameed A, Farooq T, Basra SMA, Jamil A. 2014. Chitosan seed priming improves seed germination and seedling growth in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under osmotic stress induced by polyethylene glycol. Philippines Agric. Sci 97(3), 294-299.

Hidangmayum A, Dwivedi P, Katiyar D, Hemantaranjan A. 2019. Application of chitosan on plant responses with special reference to abiotic stress. Physiol. Mol. Bio. Plants. DOI.org/10. 1007/s12298-018-0633-1

Hussain S, Khaliq A, Matloob A, Wahid MA, Afzal I. 2013. Germination and growth response of three wheat cultivars to NaCl salinity. Soil, Environ 32(1), 36-43.

Ibrahim MEH, Zhu X, Zhou G, Ali AYA, Elsiddig AMI, Farah GA. 2019. Response of some wheat varieties to gibberellic acid under saline conditions. Agrosyst. Geosci. Environ 2, 190003.

ISTA Rules. 1996. International Rules for Seed Testing. Seed Science and Technology 21, 25-254.

ISTA Rules. 2013. International Seed Testing Association. ISTA Germination Sec., Chapter 5, 55-44.

Kandil AA, Sharief AE, Elbadry, Doha EA. 2017. Seedling parameters as affected by soaking in humic acid, salinity stress and grain sorghum genotypes. Int. J. of Environ. Agri and Biotech., (IJEAB) 2(6), 3213-3223.

Kandil AA, Sharief AE, Elokda MA. 2012. Germination and seedling characters of different wheat cultivars under salinity stress. J. of Basic & Appli. Sci 8, 585-596.

Kandil EE, Schulz R, Muller T. 2013. Response of some wheat cultivars to salinity and water stress. J. of Appli. Sci. Res 9(8), 4589-4596.

Karim MA, Utsunomiya N, Shigenaga S. 1992. Effect of sodium chloride on germination and growth of hexaploid triticale at early seedling stage. Japanese J. of Crop Sci 61, 279-284.

Kashem MA, Nilufa S, Takeshi I, Hidetaka H, Tadeusz L, Toshiaki M. 2000. Alteration of starch-sucrose transition in germinating wheat seed under sodium chloride salinity. J. of Plant Biol 43(3), 121-127.

Kausar A, Ashraf MY, Ali I, Niaz M, Abbass Q. 2012. Evaluation of sorghum varieties/lines for salt tolerance using physiological indices as screening tool. Pakistan J. Bot 44(1), 47-52

Li R, He J, Xie H, Wang W, Bose SK, Sunb Y, Hu J, Yina H. 2019. Effects of chitosan nanoparticles on seed germination and seedling growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Intern. J. of Bio. Macromolecules 126, 91-100.

Mahmoodzadeh H, Khorasani FM, Besharat H. 2013. Impact of salt stress on seed germination indices of five wheat cultivars. Ann. of Bio. Res 4(6), 93-96.

Mujeeb KA, Gul A, Farooq M, Rizwan S, Ahmad I. 2008. Rebirth of synthetic hexaploids with global implications for wheat improvement. Australian J. Agric. Res 59, 391-398.

Munns RY, Tester M. 2008. Mechanisms of salinity tolerance. Ann. Rev. of Plant Bio 59, 651-681.

Oproi E, Madosa E. 2014. Germination of different wheat cultivars under salinity conditions. J. of Hort. For. and Bio 18(4), 89-92.

Orzali L, Forni C, Riccioni L. 2014. Effect of chitosan seed treatment as elicitor of resistance to Fusarium graminearum in wheat. Seed Sci. & Technol 42, 132-149, doi.org/10. 15258/sst.2014.4.03

Peykani LS, Sepehr MF. 2018. Effect of chitosan on antioxidant enzyme activity, proline, and malondialdehyde content in Triticum aestivum L. and Zea maize L. under salt stress condition. Iranian J. of Plant Physiol 9(1), 2661-2670.

Rahman M, Soomro UA, ul-Haq MZ, Gul S. 2008. Effects of salinity on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars. World J. of Agric. Sci 4(3), 398-403.

Rawat PS, Kumar R, Ram P, Pandey P. 2018. Effect of nanoparticles on wheat seed germination and seedling growth. Intern. J. of Bio., Life and Agric. Sci 12(1), 13-16.

Russell DF. 1986. MSTAT-C computer based data analysis software Crop and Soil Science Department, Michigan State University USA.

Saboora A, Kiarostami K, Behroozbayati F, Hajihashemi S. 2006. Salinity tolerance of wheat genotype at germination and early seedling growth. Pakistan J. Bio. Sci 9(11), 2009-2021.

Shehata SA, Fawzy ZF, El-Ramady HR. 2012. Response of cucumber plants to foliar application of chitosan and yeast under greenhouse conditions. Australian J. of Basic and App. Sci 6(4), 63-71.

Singh M, Singh AK, Nehal N, Sharma N. 2018. Effect of proline on germination and seedling growth of rice (Oryza sativa L.) under salt stress. J. of Pharmaco. and Phytochem 7(1), 2449-2452.

Snedecor GW, Cochran WG. 1980. Statistical Methods. 7th Ed. Iowa State University Press, Iowa, USA, pp. 507.

Sultana N, Ikeda T, Mitsui T. 2000. GA3 and proline promote germination of wheat seeds by stimulating α-amylase at unfavorable temperatures. Plant Prod. Sci 3(3), 232-237.

Terry LA, Joyce DC. 2004. Elicitors of induced disease resistance in postharvest horticultural crops: a brief review. Postharvest Bio. and Tech 32, 1-13.

Wang Y, Yu D, Li C, Zhou X. 2016. Effect of chitosan on seed germination and seedling physiological characters of wheat under salt stress. Agric. Res. Arid Areas 34 (1), 180-185.

Wated A, Reinhard EL, Lerner HR. 1983.Comparison between a stable NaCl selected Nicotiana cell line and the wild type, Na, K and proline pools as a function of salinity. Plant Physiol 73, 624-629.

Wu G, Zhou Z, Chen P, Tang X, Shao H, Wang H. 2014. Comparative ecophysiological study of salt stress for wild and cultivated soybean species from the yellow River Delta, China. The Sci. World J 45, 321-340.

Zadeh AK, Mousavi SH, Nejad ME. 2013. The effect of salinity stress on germination and seedling growth of native and breaded varieties of wheat. J. of Nov. Appl. Sci 2(12), 703-709.

Zeng D, Luo X. 2012. Physiological effects of chitosan coating on wheat growth and activities of protective enzyme with drought tolerance. J. of Soil Sci 2, 282-288.