Effect of tillage intensity, fertilizer and cowdung on soil water conservation, yield and protein content of wheat

Paper Details

Research Paper 01/08/2015
Views (197) Download (7)

Effect of tillage intensity, fertilizer and cowdung on soil water conservation, yield and protein content of wheat

Animesh Roy, Md. Abdul Matin, Md. Abdullah Al Mamun, Souvic Sarker, Abu Zofar Md. Moslehuddin
Int. J. Biosci.7( 2), 65-85, August 2015.
Certificate: IJB 2015 [Generate Certificate]


An experiment was carried out at the Bangladesh Agricultural University Farm under the Department of Soil Science during the winter season to study the effect of tillage intensity, fertilizer and cowdung on soil water conservation, yield and protein content of wheat. The experiment was laid out in a split-plot design with three tillage treatments (T1, T2 and T3) in the main plots and fertilizer with cowdung treatments in the sub-plots and replicated thrice. The total numbers of plots were 18.The highest soil moisture content (41.40%) was found at 50 DAS (days after sowing) under T2 tillage treatment and the lowest soil moisture content (31.79%) was found at 10 DAS under T1 tillage treatment. On the other hand, the highest soil moisture content (40.16%) was found at 50 DAS under FCD treatment. The highest spike length (10.53 cm), number of spikelets spike-1 (18.33), number of grains spike-1 (43.63) and 1000-grain weight (44.82) were recorded in T3 tillage treatment whereas the highest number of effective tillers plant-1 (3.87) was found under T2 tillage treatment. The highest grain yield of 3.75 t ha-1 was recorded in T3 tillage treatment and the lowest grain yield of 3.28 t ha-1 was obtained under T1 tillage treatment. The highest protein content in grain (10.85%) was recorded in T3 tillage treatment and the lowest protein content in grain (9.41%) was found in T1 tillage treatment. These results suggest that tillage operation and cowdung conserve moisture content that helps increase the availability of more nutrients for plant growth and thus increases crop yield.


Aase JK, Siddoway FH. 1982. Evaporative flux from wheat and fallow in a semiarid climate. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 46, 619-626.

Abdel, MM, Abdel SI, Rabie RK, Sabrah REA. 1995. Chick manure as a fertilizer for wheat in the sandy soils Arabia. J. Arid. Envir. 28(3), 413-420.

Adeaye KB. 1982. Effect of tillage depth on physical properties of tropical soil and on yield of maize, sorghum and cotton. Soil Till. Res. 2L 225-231.

Ahmed MH, Haffar I. 1993. Comparison of five tillage system for cotton production in rahad scheme, Suan. Agril. Mech, Asia, Africa and Latin America 24 (2), 17-20.

Ahuja JK, Patil UC, Guptan V. 2004. Effect of conservation tillage on productivity and economies of rice. JNKVV Res. J. 38(1), 78-79.

Ahuja RL, Fledler F, Dunn GH, Benjamin JG, Garrison A. 1998. Changes in soil water retention curves due to tillage and natural reconsolidation. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 62, 1228-1233.

Albrecht SL, Skirvin KW, Long DS. 2005. Winter wheat responses to nitrogen fertilization in a direct- seed, summer-fallow management system. Dry land Agricultural Research Annual Report. 87-97 p.

Ardell D, Halvorson AL, Black JN, Krupingley SD, Merril BJ, Wienhold Tonaka KI. 2001. Spring wheat response to tillage system and nitrogen fertilization within crop fallow system. Agron. J. 92, 151.

Asoegwu SN. 1995. Growth and productivity of Eguisi-melons as affected by tillage depth Agril. Mech. Asia, Africa and Latin America 23(1), 56-60.

Auskalanis A, Feza V. 2006. The impact of soil tillage minimization on sandy loam soil. Zemdirbyste Mokslo Darbai. 93(4), 55-64.

BARC (Bangladesh Agricultural Research Council). 2005. Fertilizer Recommendation Guide. Soils  Pub  no,  41,  Bangladesh  Agril.  Res.  Council. Farm gate, Dhaka.

Basavarajappa Probhakar AS, Halikatti SI. 2002. Response of foxtail millet to tillage practices, organics, nitrogen levels and their interactions on yield and yield attributes under shallow Afisols. Karnataka J. Agril. Sc. 15(3), 472-478.

BBS (Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics). 2005. Statistical Yearbook of Bangladesh. Statistics Division, Ministry of Planning, Government of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh. 136-140 p.

BBS (Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics). 2008. Statistical Pocket book of Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics, Statistics Division, Ministry of Planning, Government of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh.

Bear MH, Hendrix PF, Coleman DC. 1994. Water stable aggregate and organic matter fraction in conventional and no-till soils. Soil. Sci. Amer. J. 58, 777-786.

Bellakki MA. 1997. Long-term effect of integrated nutrient management on properties of Vertisol under dry land agriculture. J. Indian Soc. Soil Sci. 45(3), 438-442.

Bhagat RM, Mangotra M, Sharma PK, Verma. 1999. Tillage on soil physical properties and yield of rainfed rice. J. Indian Soc. Soil Sci. 47(3), 415-421.

Bhagat RM, Sharma PK, Verma TS. 1995. Tillage and residual management effects on soil physical properties and rice yield in NorthWestern Himalayan soils. Soil Till. Res. 29(4), 323-334.

Bhuyan NI. 1994. Co-ordinated project on potassium report. Progress Report (1987-88), BARI, Joydebpur, Gazipur. 1-45 p.

Bijoy D, Yadvinder S, Maskina MS, Meelu OP. 1996. The values of poultry manure for wetland, rice grown in rotation with wheat.Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems. 47(3), 243-259.

Blumenthal CS, Batey IL, Bekes F, Wrigley CW, Barlow EWR. 1991. Seasonal changes in wheat grain quality associated with high temperatures during grain filling. Australian J. Agric. Res. 42, 21-30.

Bonfil DJ, Mufradi I, Klitman S, Asido S. 1999. Wheat grain yield and soil profile water distribution in a no-till arid environment. Agron. J. 91, 368-373.

Bravo C, Florentino A. 1997. Effect on different tillage practices on soil physical properties and their influence on cotton yields. Bioagro (Venezuela). Revista del Deanat de Agronomica 9(3), 67-75.

Brey KR, Cordell ML, Longer DE, Gbur EE. 2006. Residue management practice effects on soil surface properties in a young wheatsoybean double-crop system. J. Sustain. Agric. 29(2), 121-150.

Camara KM, Payne WA, Rasmussen PE. 2003. Long-term effects of tillage, nitrogen and rainfall on winter wheat yields in the Pacific Northwest. Agron. J. 95, 750-776.

Cambell RB, Reicoshy DC, Dofy CW. 1974. Physical properties and tillage of paleudults in the south eastern costal plains. J. Soil Water Conser. 29, 220-224.

Cannel RO, Ellis FB, Christian DG, Graham JP, Douglas JT. 1980. The growth and yield of winter cereals after direct drilling, shallow cultivation and ploughing in non calcareous clay soils (1974-1980). J. Agric. Sci. Camb. 94, 345-359.

Comia RA, Stenbery M, Nelson P, Rydberg T. 1994. Soil and crop response to different tillage systems. Soil Till. Res. 29(4), 335-355.

Copper PJM, Gregory P, Tully D, Harris H. 1987. Improving water use efficiency in the rainfed farming systems of West Asia North Africa. Agric. 23, 113-158.

Cremenscu G, Ceausu C, Povarna F, Jancu D, Mihaliscu M, Popescu C. 1996. Fertilizer application with manure on wheat and maize on acid soil. Fundulea, Romanix. 53, 15-171.

Drury CF, Tan CS, Rey molds WD, Welacky TW, Wearver SE, Hamill AS, Vym. 2003. Impact of zone tillage and red color on corn performance and soil physical quality. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 67, 867-877.

European Union. 2000. Special Report No.14/2000 on Greening the community agricultural policy together with the commissions replies. Official Journal C353/2000, August 30,2001.p.0001-0056(online): http://europa.eu.Int/eurlex/en/lif/dat/2000/en300Y120801html.

FAO and UNDP. 1988. Land resources appraisal of Bangladesh for agricultural development, Report 2. Agri-ecological regions of Bangladesh. United Nations Development Program and Food and Agriculture Organization. 22-221 p.

Fenster CR. 1997. Conservation tillage in the Northern Plains. J. Soil Water Conserve. 32, 37-42.

Fokrul I, Eaqub M. 1981. Residual effect of phosphate, potash and FYM on the yield of rice and some chemical properties of soil. M. Sc (Ag). Thesis. BAU, Mymensingh.

Gerik TJ, Dr. Morrison JF. 1984. No tillage of sorghum on shrinking clay soil. Agron. J. 76(1), 71-76.

Glover B, Triplett M,  Seth D, James HS. 1996. Tillage system for cotton on silt upland soils. Agron. J. 88 (6), 507-512.

Gomez KA, Gomez AA. 1984. Statistical Procedures for Agricultural Research John and Sons. New York, USA.

Grove JH. 2006. Tillage, previous tillage and the nitrogen requirement of wheat following full season soybean. http://www. Agronomy. org./cca/exam pdf/11. pdf. grown after low land rice. J. Sci. Food Agril. 78(2), 149-161.

Gupta SC, Larson WE. 1992. Modeling soil mechanical behavior during tillage. In predicting tillage effects on soil physical properties and processes. Soil Sci. Soc. America. 151-158 p.

Hague A, Sarker RL, Alam M. 2001. Effects on soil strength on root grain of rice crop for different dry land tillage methods. Agril. Mech. in Asia, Africa and Latin America. 32(2), 23-26.

Hooda IS, Monandry C, Gupta SC. 1992. Nutrient management in bajra-wheat cropping system. Haryana J. Agron. 7(2), 140-145.

Hur BK, Yun BK, Choi KS. 1996. Effect of tillage methods of paddy field on yearly change of rice yield and soil properties. Korean J. Crop Sci. 44(1), 109-114.

Hur BL. 2000. The present situation of use of chemical fertilizers combined with organic fertilizers in crop production University Pertanian Malaysia Food Fer 5. Technol. Centre. 13-44 p.

Indulkar BS, Malewar GU. 1995. Response of rice (Oryza sativa) to different zinc sources and their residual effect of succeeding chickpea (Cicer arietinum). Indian J. Agron. 26, 4-9.

IRRI (International Rice Research Institute). 1995. Annual Report for 1995. Intl. Rice Res. Inst., Los Banos, Philippines. 480-482.

IRRI (International Rice Research Institute). 1995. Effect of rice land drainage and soybean tillage treatments on rainfed, soybean grown after wetland rice. IRRI. Annual Report for 1979. Loss Bnos, Philippines. 285-287.

Islam MA. 2000. Review of agronomic research on rice and its future strategy. Adv. Agron. Res. Bangladesh 1, 1-19.

Islam MS, Karim ASMS, Hossain MS, Masud MM. 2005. Tillage and Mulch effects on some soil physical properties and yield of wheat in shallow red brown terrace soils of Bangladesh.Sarhad,J. Agric. 21(4), 655-665.

Jamal M. 2004. Establishment techniques of mungbean (Vigna radiata L.) and seasame (Sesamum indicum L.) after rainfed wet land rice. Ph. D. Thesis in agron. Fuc. Graduate School Univ., Los Banos, Philippines. p. 212.

Joseph PH, Kunakese TE. 1985. An integrated nutrient supply system for higher rice production. Int. Rice. Res. Newl. 10(2)22.

Kant S, Kumar R. 2004. A comparative study on the effect of four soil amendments on the uptake of Fe, Mn and yield of rice in salt affected soil. Indian J. Agric.Chem. 27(283), 59-70.

Karim MS, Egashira K, Rashid MB, Moniruzzaman. 1995. Effects of soil management and timing of irrigation on the yield and water use of wheat grown on a silty clay terrace soil. Ann. Bangladesh Agric. 5(2), 105-113.

Khan MJ, Khattak MK, Said-Wahab. 2006. Influence of various tillage practices on selected physical properties of sandy loam soil under rain fed area. Sarhed. J. Agric. 22(1), 71-80.

Khan MS, Khan TH, Ullah AMS, Shaha RR. 1997. Effects of alternate tillage practices on rotting characteristics of wheat under rice wheat cropping sequence. Japanese J. Tropical Agric. 45(2), 126-132.

Khosgoftarmanesh AH, Kalbasi M. 2002. Effects of residual processed municipal waste leach ate on soil properties and wheat growth and yield. J. Sci. Tech. Agric. Natural Res. (3), 141-149.

Kondo M, Ota T, Wanjogu R. 2001. Physical and chemical properties of Vertisols and soil nutrient management for intensive rice cultivation in the Mwea area in Kenya. Japanese J. Tropic. Agric. 45 (2), 126-132.

Lee JS, Jung YT. 1993. Rice growth and soil properties as affected by tillage methods on direct sown rice RDA, J. Agric. Sci. Soil. Fertilizer 35(1), 264-269.

Lipiec J, Kus J, Sowinska  Jurkiewicz  A, Nosalewicz A. 2006. Soil porosity and  water infiltration as influenced by tillage methods. Soil Till. Res. 89(2), 210-220.

Machul M, Krasowicz S, Szeleznak E. 1997. Effect of tillage methods on the economics of grain production of maize grown in monoculture. Fragmenta Agronomica (Poland). 2: 435-438.

Maecka J, Blecharezyk A. 2002. Effect of tillage system on cereal yield and soil properties. Prace. Z-zakresu nuk-Rolniczych 93, 79-87.

Mannan MA, Kamal AMA, Islam MR. 2000. Effect of manure and fertilizer on growth and yield and protein content of transplant aman rice. Bangladesh J. Train Deve. 13(1-2), 203-210.

Matin MA. 1996. Differential tillage effects on soil physical properties, root growth and yield of maize. Book of abstracts, Fourth Congress of European Society for Agronomy, Veldhoven Kageningon the Netherlands, 264-265 p.

Matin MA, Hossain MA. 2000. Impact of tillage and manure on soil physio-chemical properties, water conservation, root growth and the yield of rice. ISTRO-2000 Conference, Book of Abstracts. Texas, USA. p. 34.

Matin MA, Uddin MS. 1994. Effect of two tillage systems on soil physical properties, root growth and the yield of rice and maize, Pakistan. J. Sci. Indus. Res. 37(5), 201-203.

Mazid MM, Faiz AMA, Khan TH, Alam MK. 1990. Effect of soil bulk density moisture regime on the root development of wheat. Bangladesh J. Soil Sci. 12(1), 30-35.

Mbagwu JS. 1999. Effects of organic amendments on some physical properties of a Tropical Soil. Wastes. 28(1), 1-13.

Mehta RK, Gajendra S, Rajput AL, Singh G. 1996. Regional Agriculture Research Sub-station, NDUA and T, Ghaghrghat, Bahraich 271901, Uttar Pradesh, India. Ann. Agril. Res. 17(1), 9-13.

Mikhailovskaya N, Batchilo N. 2007. Effect of wet poultry manure on wheat yield and biological status of soil. http://www.ramiran.net/DOC/C9.pdf.

Mohammad AK, Mansoor KK, Massod UR, 1995. Effect of different tillage operation on emergence and yield of wheat. Agril. Mech, Asia, Africa and Latin America 26(2), 62-64.

Molla MR, Sattar MA, Talukder MSU. 2000. Impact of ploughing on soil moisture conservation in rice field. Bangladesh J. Agril. Sci. 27(2), 287-291.

Momirovic R, Stankovic N, Skrbic B, Somzar, Dakie P. 1999. Effect of tillage system and herbicide application on weediness and yield of maize under continuous cropping variability of maize grain yield effect on tillage system and herbicide application. Pesticidilyugoslania 14(2), 189-196.

Munir A, Khan AS, Muslim AZ. 1994. Development and adaption of No-tillage technology of sowing wheat. Agril. Mech. Asia, Africa and Latin America. 25(4), 24-28.

Namibiar KKM. 1991. Long term fertility effects on wheat productivity . In: Wheat for the Non-traditional warm areas, saunders D:A.ed., CIMMYT.516-521 p.

Negi SC, Raghavan GS. Tahlor F. 1995. Hydraulic characteristics of conventionally and zero tillage field plots. Soil Till. Res. 2, 281-292.

Negussie T, Ahmed S, Hulluka M. 1994. The effect of tillage on yield of durum wheat in Central Ethiopia, Addis Ababa. CIMMYT. 241-246 p.

Nyborg N, Malhi SS. 1989. Effect of zero and conventional tillage on barley yield and nitrated nitrogen content, moisture and temperature of soil in North central Alberta. Soil Till. Res. 15(2), 1-9.

Ogbodo EBN. 2005. Effect of depth of tillage on soil physical conditions, growth and yield of sweet potato in an ultisol at Abakaliki, Southeastern Nigeria. J. Agric. Social R. JASR. 5(1), 41-47.

Panjab S, Aipe KC, Prashed R, Sharma SN, Singh S, Singh P. 1998. Division of Agronomy. India Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi-012, India. Indian J. Agron. 43(2), 204-207.

Peterson RE. 1965. Wheat Botany, Cultivation and Utilization. Leonard Hill (Books), London and Inter Sci. Pub. INO, NY. p. 238.

Prithar SS, Ghildyalm BP, Sur HS. 1985. Physical properties of mineral soils affecting rice based cropping systems. Soil Physics and Rice. IRRI. 56-69.

Rahman MH, Tanaka A, Hoque S. 2003. Long term effects of tillage and physicochemical properties of modified andisol of North-East Honshu Island. Commun. Soil Sci. Plant Anal. 34(11-12), 1743-1757.

Rahman MS. 1996. Pudding effects by differential tillage on soil physical properties root growth and the yield of rainfed rice. M. S. Thesis. Dept. of Soil Sci. BAU, Mymensingh. 81 p.

Rahman, M. S. 1997. Different tillage methods on soil properties, root growth and yield of BRRI Rice-29. M.S. Thesis. Dept. of Soil Sci. BAU, Mymensingh.

Ranjan B, Singh RD, Chandra S, Kundu S, Gupta HS. 2006. Effect of tillage and irrigation on yield and soil properties under rice (Oryza sativa), wheat (Triticum aestivum) system on a sandy clay loam soil of Uttaranchal. Indian. J. Agric. Sci. 76(7), 405-409.

Rathor AL, Pal AR, Sahu KK. 1999. Tillage and mulching effects on water use root growth and yield of rain fed mustard and chickpea quality and soil moisture content in Southern Italy. Soil Till Res. 92, 1-105.

Rathor AL, Pal AR, Sahu KK. 2001. Tillage and mulching effects on water use root growth and yield of rain fed mustard and chickpea grown after low land rice. J. Indian Soc. Soil Sci. 48(2), 220-228.

Razzaque A, Karim A, Sabir BA. 1993. Appropriate tillage package for wheat production after in rice tract. Agril, Mech. Asia, Africa and Latin America 24(3), 23-26.

Reddy SR, Hukkeri SB. 1995. Effect of tillage practices on irrigation requirement, weed control and yield of -low land rice. Soil Till. Res. 3, 147-158.

Rezaul SMK, Ahmed S. 1997. Effect of degree of land preparation and spacing on weed growth and yield of transplant Aman rice. Bangladesh. J. Agril. Sci. 24(1), 40-42.

Robinson FE, Cudney DW, Lehman WF. 1979. Nitrogen fertilizer timing, irrigation, protein and yellow berry in durum wheat. Agron. J. 61, 755-756.

Rose E, Rarthes B, Martias C, Tiessen H, Vledk PLG. 2001. Organic matter management for soil conservation and productivity restoration m Abrica, Special assure, Managing organic matter in tropical soils; scope and limitations. Proceeding of a workshop organized by the Centre of Development Research, Univ. Bonn, Germany. 7-10 June 1999. Nutri. Cycling Agro ecosystems. 61(12), 159-170.

Sagwal OP, Ruhal DS. 1990. Effect of long-teen application of manure and nitrogen or organic carbon, soil moisture and wheat yield inter. J. Trop. Agril. 8(3), 203-204.

Saliha BB, Krishnakumar S, Nataranjan SK. 2005. Response of rice crop to organic manuring in high pH soil. Asian J. Plant Sci. 4(5), 524-526.

Saltion JC, Mielniezcuk J. 1995. Relationship between tillage, temperature and moisture in a dark red podzokic soil eldoradosul. Revista brasileia de Cienciadoslo. 19(2), 3 13-319.

Sarder NN. 1995. Establishment technique of mungbean (Vigna radiate L.) and sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) after rain fed wetland rice. Ph.D. Thesis in Agron. Fuc. Graduate school Univ. of the Philippines at Los Banos. p. 125.

Sen H, Java PK. 1998. Effect of soil moisture tensions and predicting winter crops on the yield, water use efficiency and moisture extraction patern of succeeding pre-kharif direct seed rice. Indian Agriculturist 31(3), 199-205.

Senapati HK, Pani BK, Senapati PC. 2001. Long term effects of manuring practices in on alfisol under rain fed condition of Orissa. Indian J. Agril. Res. Dev. 16(2), 104-109.

Sharma AR, Mittra BN. 1995. Effect of nitrogen, phosphorus on rice and their residual effect on succeeding wheat/gram crop. Indian. J. Agron. 34 (1), 51-55.

Sharma MP, Bali SB. 2000. Long term effect of different cropping systems on physicochemical properties and fertility. J. Indian Soc. Soil Sci. 48(1), 181-183.

Sharma PK, Ladha JK, Blushan L, L.Bhushan, Ladha JK, Hill JE, Duxgbury JM, Gupta RK, Buresh RJ. 2003. Soil physical effects of pudding in rice-wheat systems: issues and impacts. Annual Meetings of the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, Charlotte, Nc, USA. 22 October. 97-113.

Singh PK, Singh Y. 1996. Effect of reduced tillage on soil properties; root growth and grain yield in rice-wheat system. Indian J. Agril. Res. 30(8), 179-185.

Singh PKC, Aipe R, Prasad SN, Sharma Singh S, Singh P. 1998. Relative effect of zero and conventional tillage on growth and yield of wheat and soil fertility under rice-wheat cropping system. Indian. J. Agron. 43(2), 204-207.

Srikanth K, Srinilvasmurthy CA, Parama VRR. 2000. Direct and residual effect of enriched compost, cowdung, vermicopost and fertilizers on properties of an Altisol. J. Indian Soc. Soil Sci. 48 (3), 496-499.

Tanton  TW,  Armstrong  ASB,  Rycroft  DW. 1996. Movement of water in structured saline and sodic clay topsoil under a rainfall simulator. Agric. Water. Manage 29, 255-265.

Terman GL, Raming RE, Dreier AF, Olson RA. 1996. Yield potential relationships in wheat grain, as affected by N and water. Agril. J. 61, 755-769.

Thind SS, Manmohan S, Sidhu AS, Chhibba LM, Singh M. 2002. Influence of continuous application of organic manures and nitrogen fertilizer on crop yield. J. Res. Punjab Agril. Univ. 39(3), 357-361.

Thompson CA, Whitney DA. 2000. Effects of 30 years of cropping and tillage system on surface soil test changes Commun. Soil Sci. Plant Anal. 31(1-2), 241-257.

Tomas GW, Blevins RL, Phillips RE, Mcmahon MA. 1973. Effect of a killed sod mulch on nitrate movement and corn yield. Agron. J. 65, 21-23.

Uddin MG. 2005. A baseline study on the ground water quality of Lakshmipur and Noakhali districts. M. S. Thesis. Dept. Agril. Chem. Bangladesh Agril. Univ., Mymensingh.

Unger PW. 1991. Organic matter, Nutrient and pH distribution in no and conventional tillage in Semiarid soil. Agron. J. 83(1), 186-189. dryland wheat and sorghum production in the Southern Great Plains. Agron. J. 86, 310-314.

Unger PW. 1994. Tillage effect on dryland wheat and sorghum production in the Southern Great Plains. Agron. J. 86, 310-314.

Unger PW. 1995. Tillage effect of surface soil condition and sorghum emergence. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 48, 1423-1432.

Vellykis A, Satkus A, Slepetiene A, Svirskiene A. 2004. The effects of soil tillage and crop rotations on the biological and chemical soil properties and on the crop productivity. Zemdirbyste, Moskslo, Darbai. 87, 116-129.

Verma ML, Acharya CL. 2004. Soil moisture conservation Hydrothermal regine, nitrogen uptake and yield of reined wheat as effected by soil management practices and nitrogen levels. J. Indian Soc. Soil Sci. 42(4), 645-647.

Vita De P, Di Paolo E, Fecondo G, Di Fonzo N, Pisante M. 2007. No-tillage and conventional tillage effects on durum wheat yield, grain shallow red brown terrace soils of Bangladesh. Sarhad, J. Agric. 21(4), 655-665.

Wang X, Guang. 1999. A study of traditional methods on soil tillage in China. USA Amer. Soci. Agron. 98(6), 915-917.

Zhai BN, Li SX. 2003. Combined effects of wheat and nitrogen fertilizer on yield and quality of winter wheat. Plant Nutri. Ferti. Sci. 9(1), 26-32.

Zhang-Xu-Hong, Zhu-Guan, Lin-Aijun, Chen-Boadong, Suith SE, Suith F. 2001. Chlorothalonil on Oryza sativa L. Chemosphere. 64(10), 1627-1632