Welcome to International Network for Natural Sciences | INNSpub

Paper Details

Research Paper | May 1, 2015

| Download 1

Effectiveness of anthraquinone and methylanthranilate against house sparrow (Passer domesticus) from wheat seeds and seedlings in caged conditions in Pakistan

Shahzad Ahmad, Farhat Jabeen, Hammad Ahmad Khan, Khizar Samiullah, Sajid Yaqub, Muhammad Samee Mubarik, Muhammad Kashif Zahoor, Zobia Saleem, Asif Masih, Maryam Shafique

Key Words:

J. Bio. Env. Sci.6(5), 326-334, May 2015


JBES 2015 [Generate Certificate]


Among avian pests, house sparrow caused serious depredations, not only to seeds, but also seedlings of various crops particularly in the organic farming. Different mechanical and chemical ways have been reported to manage these losses all over the world. The present study was aimed to investigate the efficacy of two bird repellents namely methylanthranilate and anthraquinone to manage the depredations of wheat seeds and seedlings against house sparrow in captivity. For this purpose house sparrows were offered with treated and untreated seeds and seedlings of wheat in two aviaries. By providing treated seeds and seedlings with these repellents, the relative effectiveness was appraised by comparing the consumed and unconsumed seeds and seedlings. Feeding responses of these birds against different doses of these repellents were investigated with the help of the closed circuit cameras adjusted in the aviaries. During the whole experiment among trial and control group highly significant differences (P<0.01) were seen in both seeds and seedlings cases. The mean consumption of wheat seeds treated with anthraquinone and methylanthranilate was 24.04±2.50 and 26.28±2.02, respectively, which depicted anthraquinone is relatively good repellent than methylanthranilate and a significant difference (P<0.05) was also observed. Different concentrations of both repellents showed a non-significant (P>0.05) variance when wheat seeds and seedlings were offered to house sparrows. House sparrows were influenced more quickly by consuming wheat seeds and seedlings treated with both repellents. Sparrows displayed noticeable head-shaking and feather ruffling behavior by consuming the treated seeds and seedlings.


Copyright © 2015
By Authors and International Network for
Natural Sciences (INNSPUB)
This article is published under the terms of the Creative
Commons Attribution Liscense 4.0

Effectiveness of anthraquinone and methylanthranilate against house sparrow (Passer domesticus) from wheat seeds and seedlings in caged conditions in Pakistan

Avery ML, Tillman EA, Laukert CC. 2001. Evaluation of chemical repellents for reducing crop damage by dickcissels in Venezuela. International Journal of Pest Management 47(4), 311-314. http://www.aphis.usda.gov/wildlife_damage/nwrc/p ublications/01pubs/01-1.

Avery ML, Decker DG, Humphrey JS, Primus TM. Mcgrane AP. 1998. Anthraquinone protects rice seeds from birds. Crop Protection 17(3), 225-230.

Avery ML, Decker DG, Humphrey JS Laukert CC. 1996. Mint plant derivatives as blackbird feeding deterrents. Crop Protection 15, 461–464. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0261-2194(96)00.010-5.

Avery ML, Decker DG, Fischer DL, Stafford TR. 1993. Responses of blackbirds to a new insecticidal seed treatment. Journal of Wildlife Management 57(3), 652-656.

Avery ML. 1992. Evaluation of methyl anthranilate as a bird repellent in Fruit crops. In J. E. Borrecco & R. E. Marsh (Eds.), Proceeding of 15th Vertebrate Pest Conference, Published at University of California, Davis, 130-133.

Cummings JL, Byrd RW, Eddleman WR, Engeman RM, Tupper SK. 2011. Effectiveness of AV-10111 to reduce damage to drill-planted rice from blackbirds. Journal of Wildlife Management 75(2), 353–356. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jwmg.65.

Cummings JL, Pochop PA, Engeman RM, Davis JE, Primus TM. 2002. Evaluation of flight control® to reduce blackbird damage to newly planted rice in Louisiana. International Bio deterioration and Biodegradation 49, 169-173.

Economic survey of Pakistan. 2012-13. Govt. of Pakistan, Econ. Advisor’s Wing, Financ. Division, Islamabad, Pakistan.

Esther A, Tilcher R, Jacob J. 2013. Assessing the effects of three potential chemical repellents to prevent bird damage to corn seeds and seedlings. Pest management science 69, 425–430.

Garg SSL, Singh J, Prakash V. 1966. Losses of wheat in thrashing yards due to birds and rodents. Bulletin of Grain Technology 4(2), 94-96.

Kennedy TF, Connery J. 2008. An investigation of seed treatments for the control of crow damage to newly-sown wheat. Irish Journal of Agricultural and Food Research 47, 79–91. http://hdl.handle.net/11019/630.

Keppel G. 1973. Design and analysis: a researcher’s handbook. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs. New Jersey.

Mason JR, Bonwell WR. 1993. Evaluation of Turpentine as a Bird- Repellent Seed Treatment. Crop Protection 12, 453-457.

Mason JR, Clark L, Adams MA. 1989. Anthranilate repellency to starlings: chemical correlates and sensory perception. Journal of Wildlife Management 53, 55-64.

Rizvi SWA, Pervez A, Ahmed SM. 2002. Evaluation of methiocarb 50%-WP as a taste repellent against the house Sparrow (Passer domesticus L.). Turkey journal of zoology 26, 131-135.

Simon G. 2008. A short overview of bird control in sweet and sour cherry orchards – Possibilities of protection of bird damage and its effectiveness. International Journal of Horticultural Science 14 (1– 2), 107–111.

Shafi MM, Khan AA, Hussain I. 1986. Parakeet damage to citrus fruit in Punjab. Journal of Bomby Natural History Society 83, 439–44.

Upshall WH. 1943. Fruit Maturity and Quality. Food Bulletin, Ontario Department of Agriculture, 447.

Way RD. 1968. Breeding for superior cherry cultivars in New York State. In ISHS Symposium on Cherries and Cherry Growing, Bonn, Germany, 121– 137.

Werner SJ, Linz GM, Carlson JC, Susan EPA, Tuppera SK, Santer MM. 2011. Anthraquinone- based bird repellent for sunflower crops. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 129, 162–169. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.applanim.2010.11.010

Werner SJ, Carlson JC, Tupper ST, Santer MM, Linz GM. 2009. Threshold concentrations of an anthraquinone-based repellent for Canada geese, red-winged blackbirds and ring-necked pheasants. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 121, 190–196. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.applanim.2009.09.016

Witmer GW. 2007. The ecology of vertebrate pests and integrated pest management (IPM). In M. Kogan and P. Jepson (eds.), Perspectives in Ecological Theory and Integrated Pest Management. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 393-410.

Wright EN, Brough T. 1966. Bird damage to fruit In P.M., Synge & E. Papier (eds.). Fruit Present and Future. RHS/Bles., 168–180.


Style Switcher

Select Layout
Chose Color
Chose Pattren
Chose Background