Welcome to International Network for Natural Sciences I INNSpub

Paper Details

Research Paper | December 1, 2013

| Download 1

Effectiveness of group contact methods in diffusion of agricultural technologies among the farming community

A. Khatam, S. Muhammad, I. Ashraf, A.K.M.K. Pervez

Key Words:

J. Bio. Env. Sci.3(12), 264-268, December 2013


JBES 2013 [Generate Certificate]


The present study was conducted in 2010 to examine the effectiveness of group contact methods in diffusion of agricultural technologies among the farming community of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. For this purpose, seven districts of the central region of the province were selected. Data were collected from 280 randomly selected farmers through “survey” method with the help of a pre-tested interview schedule and were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The results of the study show that main group extension methods through which the farmers got sources of agricultural information were demonstrations, group discussions, field days and lectures of extension field staff. However, demonstrations were perceived to be the most effective method for dissemination of agricultural technologies with mean value 2.91 followed by group discussions and field days which were ranked 2nd and 3rd with mean values 2.58 and 2.33, respectively. A good number (46.07%) of respondents never visited agricultural demonstrations, whereas, 26.07% respondents occasionally visited these demonstrations while, 20.36% respondents rarely visited demonstrations. Only a small number of respondents (7.5%) regularly visited demonstrations laid out in the study area. Most (45.36%) of the respondents never participated in group discussions regarding latest agricultural technologies although, a good number of respondents (32.85%) rarely participated in group discussions, and 16.43% respondents took part in such discussions occasionally whereas, only a fraction of the respondents (5.36%) regularly participated in group discussions. Quite a few respondents (37.50%) rarely attended field days for latest agricultural technologies, 34.64% respondents occasionally attended, 18.57% never attended field days whereas, 9.29% respondents regularly attended field days organized in the area. Most of the respondents (40.36%) never attended lectures of extension field staff regarding agricultural technologies, 25.36% rarely attended such lectures, and 23.21% occasionally attended the lectures. Only a small number (11.07%) of respondents regularly attended the lectures of extension field staff.


Copyright © 2013
By Authors and International Network for
Natural Sciences (INNSPUB)
This article is published under the terms of the Creative
Commons Attribution Liscense 4.0

Effectiveness of group contact methods in diffusion of agricultural technologies among the farming community

Abbas M, Lodhi TE, Bashir A, Ather M. 2008. Dissemination of wheat production technology and interface of out-reach efforts with farmers. Journal of Agricultural Research 46 (1).

Amudavi DM, Khan ZR, Wanyama JM, Midega CAO, Pittchar J, Nyangau IM, Hassanali A, Pickett JA. .2009. Assessment of Technical Efficiency of Farmer Teachers in the Uptake and Dissemination of Push–Pull Technology in Western Kenya. In: Crop Protection 28 (11) 987-996.

Behrens JH, Evans JF. 1984. Using mass media for extension teaching. In: Swanson, B.E. (ed.), Agricultural Extension: A Reference Manual, p. 144-155. FAO, Rome, Italy

Farooq A, Ishaq M. 2005. Devolving the farm extension system. “Daily Dawn” 19 Dec, 2005. (Online ed.)

Farooq S, Muhammad S. Chaudhary KM, Ashraf I. 2007. Role of print media in the dissemination of agricultural information among farmers. Pakistan Journal Agricultural Science. 44 (2) 378-380.

Fitzgibbon TC, Morris LL 1987. How to design a programme evaluation. Newburry Park CA: Sage.

Khan A, Pervaiz U, Khan N M, Ahmad S, Nigar S. 2009. Effectiveness of demonstration on plots as extension method adopted by AKRSP for agricultural technology dissemination in district Chitral. Sarhad Journal of Agriculture 25(2) 313-319.

Khan SR A 2004. Wheat Production Scenario. Daily Dawn, Jan 12: 3.

Khan ZR, Amudavi DM Midega CAO, Wanyama JM, Pickett JA 2008. Farmers’ Perceptions of a ‘Push–Pull’ Technology for Control of Cereal Stem Borers and Striga Weed in Western Kenya. In: Crop protection 27 (6) 976-987.

Kerkhof P 1990. Agroforestry in Africa: A survey of project experience. London: Panos Institute

Muhammad SC, Asghar M, Chaudhry KM, Khan SA. 1990. An evaluation into extension teaching methods used for the adoption of recommended water management practices. Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Science 27: (2) 102–105.

Muhammad S and Garfoth C. 1995. Farmer’s information exposure and its impact on their adoption behaviour. Pakistan Journalof Agricultural Science, 32 262–5.

Rahman M 2006. Livestock farmer field school (LFFS) in CBRM: pioneering in Pakistan. Annual report ICI-Pakistan.


Style Switcher

Select Layout
Chose Color
Chose Pattren
Chose Background