Effectiveness of two diatomaceous earths (FossilShield® and SilicoSec®) against Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) infesting two maize varieties (CLH103 and SHABA) at storage

Paper Details

Research Paper 01/05/2016
Views (299) Download (4)

Effectiveness of two diatomaceous earths (FossilShield® and SilicoSec®) against Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) infesting two maize varieties (CLH103 and SHABA) at storage

Fotso Tagne Gabriel, Tofel Haman Katamssadan, Nukenine Elias Nchiwan, Adler Cornel
Int. J. Agron. Agri. Res.8( 5), 1-13, May 2016.
Certificate: IJAAR 2016 [Generate Certificate]


Influence of maize varieties CLH103 and SHABA on the effectiveness of FossilShield® and SilicoSec® against Sitophilus zeamais was evaluated in laboratory. Each product was used at 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 g/kg and four exposure periods (1, 3, 7 and 14 days) for adult mortality and F1 progeny production. Damaged and germinated seeds were also assessed. Malathion (positive control) was used at the recommended dosage (0.5 g/kg). Probit analysis showed that FossilShield® and SilicoSec® were more toxic to weevils on CLH103 than SHABA from 3 days post-infestation, while within 1 day post-infestation, the two products were rather more toxic on SHABA than CLH103. Student t-test showed significant difference between the two maize varieties treated with FossilShield® in the reduction of adult emergence at 1 g/kg while with SilicoSec® this difference was observed for all concentrations. Malathion as positive control completely inhibited the development of insects on the two maize varieties. Like Malathion at the single dosage (0.5 g/kg), the number of emerged insects was completely reduced by each diatomaceous earth (DE) at 2 g/kg. FossilShield® (from 1.5 g/kg) reduced completely grain damages in the CLH103 variety, while FossilShield® (2 g/kg) almost reduced grain damages (1.0%). SilicoSec® achieved complete reduction on CLH103 variety, while, on SHABA variety, the reduction of grain damage was significantly different (7.4%). Seed germination was not affect by the DEs. In this study, the results showed that utilization of FossilShield® and SilicoSec® could be favorably considered as alternative solution to Malathion against Sitophilus zeamais.


Abbott WS. 1925. A method of computing the effectiveness of an insecticide. Journal of Economic Entomology 18, 265-267.

AFNOR. 1982. Recueil de normes française des produits derivés des fruits et légumes. Association française de normalisation, 1st edn. AFNOR, Paris. 27 pp.

Afridi IAK, Parveen Z, Masud SZ. 2001. Stability of organophosphate and pyrethroid pesticides on wheat storage. Journal of Stored Products Research 37, 199-204.

Akob AC, Ewete KF. 2007. The efficacy of ashes of four locally used plant materials against Sitophilus zeamais (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Cameroon. International Journal of Tropical Insect Science 27(1), 21-26.

Athanassiou CG, Kavallieratos NG, Andris NA. 2004. Insecticidal effect of three diatomaceous earth formulations against adults of Sitophilus oryzae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Tribolium confusum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) on oat, rye and triticale. Journal of Economic Entomology 97, 2160-2167.

Athanassiou CG,  Kavallieratos  NG,  Dimizas CB, Vayias BJ, Tomanovič Ž. 2006. Factors affecting the insecticidal efficacy of the diatomaceous earth formulation SilicoSec against adults of the rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Applied Entomology Zoology 41, 201-207.

Athanassiou CG, Kavallieratos NG, Peteinatos GG, Petrou SE, Boukouvala MC, Tomanovič Ž. 2007. Influence of temperature and humidity on insecticidal effect of three diatomaceous earth formulations against larger grain borer (Coleoptera: Bostrychidae). Journal of Economic Entomology 100, 599-603.

Athanassiou CG, Kavallieratos NG, Tsaganou FC, Vayias BJ, Dimizas CB, Buchelos CTh. 2003. Effect of grain type on the insecticidal efficacy of SilicoSec against Sitophilus oryzae (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Crop Protection 22, 1141-1147.

Athanassiou CG, Kavallieratos NG, Vayias BJ, Panoussakis EC. 2008. Influence of grain type on the susceptibility of different Sitophilus oryzae (L.) populations, obtained from different rearing media, to three diatomaceous earth formulations. Journal of Stored Product Research 44, 279-284.

Athanassiou CG, Kavallieratos NG, Vayias BJ, Tomanović Ž, Petrović A, Rozman V, Adler C, Korunic Z, Milovanović D. 2011. Laboratory evaluation of diatomaceous earth deposits mined from several locations in central and southeastern Europe as potential protectants against coleopteran grain pests. Crop Protection 30, 329-339.

Athanassiou CG, Kavallieratos NG. 2005. Insecticidal effect and adherence of PyriSec in different grain commodities. Crop Protection 27, 703-710.

Athanassiou CG, Vayias BJ, Dimizas CB, Kavallieratos NG, Papagregoriou AS, Buchelos CT. 2005. Insecticidal efficacy of diatomaceous earth against Sitophilus oryzae (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Tribolium confusum du Val (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) on stored wheat: influence of dose rate, temperature and exposure interval. Journal of Stored Products Research 41, 47-55.

Ceruti FC, Lazzari SMN, Lazzari FA, Pinto Junior AR. 2008. Efficacy of diatomaceous earth and temperature to control the maize weevil in stored maize. Scientia Agraria 9(1), 73-78.

Chiriloaie  A,  Athanassiou  C,  Vassilakos  T, Fătu V, Drosu S, Ciobanu M. 2014. Influence of grain type on the efficacy of some formulations of diatomaceous earth against the rice weevil (Sitophilus oryzae L.). Scientific Papers. Series A. agronomy 58, 140-145.

Couturon E. 1980. Le maintien de la viabilité des graines de caféiers Par le contrôle de leur teneur en eau et de la température de stockage. Café Cacao Thé 24(1), 27-32.

Demissie G, Tefera T, Tadesse A. 2008. Efficacy of SilicoSec, filter cake and wood ash against the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on three maize genotypes. Journal of Stored Product Research 44, 227-231.

Fields P, Korunic Z. 2000. The effect of grain moisture content and temperature on the efficacy of diatomaceous earth from different geographical locations against stored products beetles. Journal Stored Products Research 36, 1-13.

Finney DJ. 1971. Probit analysis. Cambridge University. Press. London.

Hertlein MB, Thompson GD, Subramanyam Bh, Athanassiou CG. 2011. Spinosad: A new natural product for stored grain protection. Journal of Stored Products Research 47, 131-146.

Iatrou SA, Kavallieratos NG, Palyvos NE, Buchelos CT, Tomanovič S. 2010. Acaricidal effect of different diatomaceous earth formulations against Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Astigmata: Acaridae) on stored wheat. Journal of Economic Entomology 103(1), 190-196

Kavallieratos NG, Athanassiou CG, Pashalidou FG, Andris NS, Tomanovič Ž. 2005. Influence of grain type on the insecticidal efficacy of two diatomaceous earth formulations against Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrychidae). Pest Management Science 61, 660-666.

Kavallieratos NG, Athanassiou CG, Vayias BJ, Maistrou SN. 2007. Influence of temperature on susceptibility of Tribolium confusum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) populations to three modified diatomaceous earth formulations. Fla Entomology 90, 616-625.

Khakame SK, Likhayo P, Olubayo FM, Nderitu JH. 2012. Effect of grain moisture content and storage time on efficacy of inert and botanical dusts for the control of Sitophilus zeamais in stored maize. Journal of Stored Products and Postharvest Research 3(10), 145-151.

Korunic Z. 1997. Rapid assessment of the insecticidal value of diatomaceous earths without conducting bioassays. Journal of Stored Products Research 33(3), 219–229.

Korunic Z. 1998. Diatomaceous earths, a group of natural insecticides. Journal of Stored Products Research 34, 87-97.

Matti PV, Awaknavar JS. 2009. Effect of temperature and relative humidity on efficacy of diatomaceous earth (Protect-It) on mortality of rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae. Karnataka Journal of Agriculture Sciences, 22(1), 99-103.

Mebarkia A, Rahbé Y, Guechi A, Bouras A, Makhlouf M. 2010. Susceptibility of twelve soft wheat varieties (Triticum aestivum) to Sitophilus granaries (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Agricultural Biology Journal N. Am 1(4), 571-578.

Mewis I, Ulrichs C. 2001. Effects of diatomaceous earth on water content of Sitophilus granarius (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and its possible use in stored product protection. Journal of Applied Entomology 125, 351–360.

Mohale S, Allotey J, Siame BA. 2010. Control of Tribolium confusum J. du val by diatomaceous earth (Protect-It) on stored groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) and Aspergillus flavus link spore dispersal. African Journal of Food Agriculture and Nutrition Development 10(6), 2678-2694.

Nukenine EN, Adler C, Reichmuth Ch. 2007. Efficacy evaluation of plant powders from Cameroon as post-harvest grain protectants against the infestation of Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Journal of Plant Disease and Protection 114, 30–36.

Nukenine EN, Goudoungou JW, Adler C, Reichmuth Ch. 2010. Efficacy of diatomaceous earths and botanical powders against the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on maize. 10th International Working Conference on Stored Products. Julius-Kühn-Archiv 425, 26-41.

Nukenine EN, Monglo B, Awasom I, Tchuenguem FF-N, Ngassoum MB. 2002. Farmers’ perception on some aspects of maize production, and infestation levels of stored maize by Sitophilus zeamais in the Ngaoundere region of Cameroon. Cameroon Journal of Biological Biochemical Sciences 12, 18-30.

Odeyemi O, Gbaye O, Akeju O. 2006. Resistance of Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab.) to pirimiphos methyl in three zones in Nigeria. In: Proceedings of the ninth International Working Conference on Stored-product Protection 15-18 October, 2006. Campinas, Sauo Paulo, Brazil 324-329.

Parsaeyan E, Saber M, Vojoudi S. 2012. Lethal and sublethal effects from short-term exposure of Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) to diatomaceous earth and spinosad on glass surface. Acta Entomologica Sinica 55(11), 1289-1294.

Rao NK, Hanson J, Dulloo ME, Ghosh K, Nowell D, Larinde M. 2006. Manuel de manipulation des semences dans les banques de gènes. Manuels pour les banques de gènes No. 8. Biodiversité Internationale, Rome, Italie. 165p.

Sabbour M, MAbd-El-Aziz SEl-S, Sherief MA. 2012. Efficacy of three entomopathogenic fungi alone or in combination with diatomaceous earth modifications for the control of three pyralid moths in stored grains. Journal of Plant Protection Research 52(3), 359-363.

Sadeghi A, Van Damme E, Peumans W, Smagghe G. 2006. Deterrent activity of plant lectins on cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) oviposition. Phytochemistry 67(18), 2078-2084.

SAS Institute 2003. The SAS System version 9.1 for windows. SAS Institute, Cary. NC.

Shafighi Y, Ziaee M, Ghosta Y. 2014. Diatomaceous earth used against insect pests, applied alone or in combination with Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana. Journal of Plant Protection Research 54(1), 62-66.

Shams G, Safaralizadeh MH, Imani S. 2011. Insecticidal effect of diatomaceous earth against Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) and Sitophilus granarius (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) under laboratory conditions. African Journal of Agricultural Research 6(24), 5464-5468.

Snelson JT. 1987. Grain protectant In: Monograph No.3 Australian centre for international Agricultural Research, Canbera, Australia.

Stathers TE, Denniff M, Golob P. 2004. The efficacy and persistence of diatomaceous earth admixed with commodity against four tropical stored product beetle pests. Journal of Stored Products Research 40, 113-123.

Subramanyam Bh, Roesli R. 2000. Inert dusts. In: “Alternatives to Pesticides in tored-Product IPM” (Bh. Subramanyam, D.W. Hagstrum, eds). Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordreecht, 321–380.

Teshome A, Tefera T. 2011. Potential application of entomopathogenic fungi in the management of maize weevil. African Crop Science Conference Proceedings 10, 249-253.

Vassilakos TN, Athanassiou CG, Kavallieratos NG, Vayias BJ. 2006. Influence of temperature on the insecticidal effect of Beauveria bassiana in combination with diatomaceous earth against Rhyzopertha dominica and Sitophilus oryzae on stored wheat. Biological Control 38, 270-281.

Vayias   BJ,   Athanassiou   CG,    Buchelos   CT. 2009b. Effectiveness of spinosad combined with diatomaceous earth against different European strains of Tribolium confusum du Val (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae): Influence of commodity and temperature. Journal of Stored Products Research 45, 165-176.

Vayias BJ, Athanassiou CG, Korunic Z, Rozmanc V. 2009a. Evaluation of natural diatomaceous earth deposits from South-eastern Europe for stored-grain protection: the effect of particle size. Pest Management Science 65, 1118– 1123.

Vayias BJ, Stephou VK. 2009. Factors affecting the insecticidal efficacy of an enhanced diatomaceous earth formulation against three stored-product insect species. Journal of Stores Product Research 45, 226-231.

Wakil W, Ashfaq M, Niaz F, Israr M, Yasin M, Tahir M. 2011. Evaluation of Grevillea robusta, diatomaceous earth and K-Obiol for the control of mung dhora (Callosobruchus chinensis L.) (Insecta: Coleoptera: Bruchidae). Pakistan Entomology 33(2), 105-111.

Wakil W, Ashfaq M, Shabbir A, Javed A, Sagheer M. 2006. Efficacy of diatomaceous earth (Protect-It) as a protectant of stored wheat against Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrychidae). Pakistan Entomology 28(2), 19-24.

Wakil W, Mansoor-ul-Hasan, Shabbir A, Javed A. 2005. Insecticidal efficacy of a diatomaceous earth SilicoSec against red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) on stored wheat. Pakistan Entomology 27(2), 49-51.

Wakil W, Shabbir A. 2005. Evaluation of diatomaceous earth admixed with rice to control Sitophilus oryzae (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Pakistan Entomology 27(2), 15-17.