Effects of cigarette tobacco contaminated cultures on germination of maize (Zea mays L.) seeds

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Research Paper 01/04/2018
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Effects of cigarette tobacco contaminated cultures on germination of maize (Zea mays L.) seeds

Ikram-ul Haq, Ghulam Qadir, Nazia Parveen Gill, Aftab Ahmed Khaskheli, Ghulam Qadir Lanjar
J. Bio. Env. Sci.12( 4), 166-175, April 2018.
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The maize (Zea mays L.) is 2nd most important cereal crop and it is routinely cultivated just before or after the harvest of tobacco crop. Tobacco is the toxic plant mainly used in cigarette, cigars, bidis and chewing in the form of paan and gutkha. The goal of this study is to investigate the toxic effects of cigarette tobacco on seed germination of maize. Seeds are sown on filter-paper wetted with 5% cigarette tobacco in distilled water (T₁), 10% ethanol (T₂), 20% ethanol (T₃) and without tobacco controls like as distilled water (T₀) and 10% ethanol (T₄) for 8-days. A significant effect of cigarette tobacco observed on seed germination. Lowest seed germination, shoot length, root length and plant biomass noted on T₃ culture (p<0.05). Similar reduction also measured in chlorophyll contents, total sugars and protein contents, while reducing sugars showed reverse results significantly. Among the cultures T₁, T₂ and T₃ including T₄ (ethanol without cigarette tobacco), the total carotenoids, antioxidants and proteases activities noted in increasing trend in comparative to T₀ seedlings (p<0.05). It is biochemical signal from the seedlings that their nutrient cultures are growing under nutritional stress. The causes of these cultures are growth inhibitory stressed of heavy metals and other toxic components of tobacco. Cigarette tobacco proved that it is toxic at seed germination stage and could be toxic at both vegetative and reproductive plant growth stages.


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