Effects of different distillation methods on essential oil content and composition of Lippiacitriodora H.B.K.

Paper Details

Research Paper 01/09/2014
Views (203) Download (2)

Effects of different distillation methods on essential oil content and composition of Lippiacitriodora H.B.K.

Hassan Nourafcan, FatemehSefidkon, Ahmad Khaligi, Amir Mousavi,Mozaffar Sharifi
J. Bio. Env. Sci.5( 3), 115-123, September 2014.
Certificate: JBES 2014 [Generate Certificate]


The world production and consumption of essential oils and perfumes are increasing very fast. Production technology is an essential element to improve the overall yield and quality of essential oil. Hydro-distillation (HD), water and steam distillation (WSD) and steam distillation (SD) are the most traditional and commonly used methods. To study the effect of nine distillation methods (HD by Clevenger type apparatus (HDC), HD by Microwave (HDM), Steam distillation (SD), SD by Microwave (SDM), Water and Steam distillation by Kaiser and Lang type apparatus (Kaiser and Lang WSD), Microwave WSD, Microwave Dry distillation, Industrial SD and Industrial HD.) on volatile oil content and composition of lemon verbena (Lippiacitriodora H.B.K.), an experiment was conducted as a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with three replicates. The essential oils were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. Result showed that the highest level of α-Pinene, Sabinene, 1,8-Cineole, ɣ-Terpinene, cis limonene oxide and citronellal were obtained by HDC, cis limonene oxide and α-terpinyl acetate from HDM, cis limonene oxide and α-terpineol from SD, cis limonene oxide, cissabinol, α-terpineol, neral, geranial and α-terpinyl acetate from SDM, α-terpinyl acetate, geranyl acetate and cubenol from Kaiser and Lang WSD, α-terpinyl acetate, geranyl acetate, cubenol, spathulenol, globulol and epi-α-cadinol from Microwave WSD, α-terpinyl acetate, geranyl acetate, ɣ-elemene and epi-α-cadinol from Microwave Dry distillation, Limonene, trans pinocarveol, cissabinol, α-terpinyl acetate, geranyl acetate, E-caryophyllene and α-humulene from Industrial SD and β-Pinene and cissabinol from Industrial HD. The yield of essential oil was highest in HDC, HDM, SDM and Microwave WSD. Citral is a valuable flavor and scent reagent that is heavily used in the food and perfume industries .According to the results, the SDM method with the highest content of citral and yield of essential oil is suggested as a suitable method for essential oils extraction of lemon verbena. Also, this method had relatively suitable time and temperature for oil extraction and could be proposed as an efficient method considering energy concerns.


Adams  RP.  1995.  Identification  of  essential  oil components by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy, Carol Stream, IL: Allured Publishing Co. Pp230.

Agah M, Najafian N. 2012. Essential oil content and composition of Lippiacitriodora as affected by drying method before flowering stages. European Journal of Experimental Biology 2 (5), 1771-1777.

Charles DJ, Simon JE. 1990. Comparison of Extraction Methods for the Rapid Determination of Essential Oil Content and Composition of Basil. J. AMER. SOC HORT. SCI 115(3), 458-462.

Fathi E, Sefidkon F. 2012. Influence of Drying and Extraction Methods on Yield and Chemical Composition of the Essential Oil of Eucalyptus sargentii. J. Agr. Sci. Tech 14, 1035-1042.

Gharib FAL. 2006. Effect of Salicylic Acid on the Growth, Metabolic Activities and Oil Content of Basil and Marjoram. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology 8(4), 485–492.

Iijima Y, Wang G, Fridman E, Pichersky E. 2006. Analysis of the enzymatic formation of citral in the glands of sweet basil. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 448, 141–149. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.abb.2005.07.026

Khorshidi J, Mohammadi R, FakhrTabatabaei M, Nourbakhsh H. 2009. Influence of Drying Methods, Extraction Time, and Organ Type on Essential Oil Content of Rosemary (Rosmarinusofficinalis L.). Nature and Science 7(11), 42-44.

Masango P. 2005. Cleaner production of essential oils by steam distillation. Journal of Cleaner Production 13, 833-839. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2004.02.039

Mohammadi M, Tobeh A, Fakhari R, Naghdi H, Ochi M. 2013. The Quantitative Yield of lemon Verbena (Lippia citriodora) as Influenced by Different biological Fertilizers. International Journal of Agronomy and Plant Production 4(9), 2126-2129.

Portmann E, Lo´ pezNigro MM, Reides CG, Llesuy S, Ricco RA, Wagner ML, Gurni AA, Carballo M.A. 2012. Aqueous Extracts of Lippiaturbinata and Aloysiacitriodora (Verbenaceae): Assessment of Antioxidant Capacity and DNA damage. International Journal of Toxicology 31(2), 192-202.

Rao GV, Gopalakrishnan M, Mukhopadhyay T. 2013. Secondary metabolites from the leaves of Lippia citriodora H. B. & K. Der Pharmacia Lettre 5(3), 492-495.

Shibamoto T. 1987. Retention indices in essential oil analysis. (eds) Sandra P, Bicchi, C. HuethigVerlag, New York, 259-274.