J. Bio. Env. Sci.5(3), 115-123, September 2014
The world production and consumption of essential oils and perfumes are increasing very fast. Production technology is an essential element to improve the overall yield and quality of essential oil. Hydro-distillation (HD), water and steam distillation (WSD) and steam distillation (SD) are the most traditional and commonly used methods. To study the effect of nine distillation methods (HD by Clevenger type apparatus (HDC), HD by Microwave (HDM), Steam distillation (SD), SD by Microwave (SDM), Water and Steam distillation by Kaiser and Lang type apparatus (Kaiser and Lang WSD), Microwave WSD, Microwave Dry distillation, Industrial SD and Industrial HD.) on volatile oil content and composition of lemon verbena (Lippiacitriodora H.B.K.), an experiment was conducted as a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with three replicates. The essential oils were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. Result showed that the highest level of α-Pinene, Sabinene, 1,8-Cineole, ɣ-Terpinene, cis limonene oxide and citronellal were obtained by HDC, cis limonene oxide and α-terpinyl acetate from HDM, cis limonene oxide and α-terpineol from SD, cis limonene oxide, cissabinol, α-terpineol, neral, geranial and α-terpinyl acetate from SDM, α-terpinyl acetate, geranyl acetate and cubenol from Kaiser and Lang WSD, α-terpinyl acetate, geranyl acetate, cubenol, spathulenol, globulol and epi-α-cadinol from Microwave WSD, α-terpinyl acetate, geranyl acetate, ɣ-elemene and epi-α-cadinol from Microwave Dry distillation, Limonene, trans pinocarveol, cissabinol, α-terpinyl acetate, geranyl acetate, E-caryophyllene and α-humulene from Industrial SD and β-Pinene and cissabinol from Industrial HD. The yield of essential oil was highest in HDC, HDM, SDM and Microwave WSD. Citral is a valuable flavor and scent reagent that is heavily used in the food and perfume industries .According to the results, the SDM method with the highest content of citral and yield of essential oil is suggested as a suitable method for essential oils extraction of lemon verbena. Also, this method had relatively suitable time and temperature for oil extraction and could be proposed as an efficient method considering energy concerns.
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