Welcome to International Network for Natural Sciences | INNSpub

Effects of Farmers’ conflicts on Agricultural Extension Services in District Sargodha of Punjab, Pakistan

Research Paper | March 1, 2021

| Download 18

Saima Sadaf, Ejaz Ashraf, Sher Muhammad, Nadeem Asghar

Key Words:

Int. J. Biosci.18( 3), 1-9, March 2021

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12692/ijb/18.3.1-9


IJB 2021 [Generate Certificate]


Small-scale farmers suffer from various agricultural related conflicts. These conflicts affect not only agricultural and food production but also the personal growth and development of the individuals. The farming conflicts that may not managed properly and on time could hinder sustainable agricultural development. Agricultural Extension, as a behavioural science is responsible not only for technology dissemination but also for raising the living standards of rural households. The present study carried out in the Department of Agricultural Extension, Sargodha University during 2017. The focus of this study was to examine the effects of farming conflicts on agricultural extension services; to identify the present role of agricultural extension services in the management of farmers’ conflicts. The data from extension field staff (EFS) collected with the help of a structured questionnaire. It was found that the system was predominantly occupied by EFS who were not qualified in the field of extension and hence were unaware of the concept of problem solving in the scenario of conflict management (CM) among farming communities. Further, the results confirmed a detrimental effect of conflicts on performing extension activities.  Their effect was more for turnover of extension work by EFS. The low satisfaction level among EFS hinders smooth functioning of extension activities and they cannot monitor the farmers ’deeds during the conflicting situation. Presently, EFS does not take part in the conflict management process as they consider it not part of their formal job. The results of the chi-square test of association between EFS major degree area and their involvement in CM of farmers was significant.


Copyright © 2021
By Authors and International Network for
Natural Sciences (INNSPUB)
This article is published under the terms of the Creative
Commons Attribution Liscense 4.0

Effects of Farmers’ conflicts on Agricultural Extension Services in District Sargodha of Punjab, Pakistan

Adisa RS. 2012. Land Use Conflict Between Farmers and Herdsmen – Implications for Agricultural and Rural Development in Nigeria, Rural Development – Contemporary Issues and Practices, Rashid Solagberu Adisa, Intech Open,

http://dx.doi.org/10.5772/45787.       https://www.intechopen.com/books/rural-development-contemporary-issues-and-practices/land-use-conflict-between-famers-and-herdsmen-implications-for-agricultural-and-rural-development-in

Ali Z, Nasir A. 2010. Land administration system in Pakistan–current situation and stakeholders’ perception. Paper presented at the FIG Congress 2010, Facing the Challenges – Building the Capacity, Framework 11, 16. Sydney, Australia.

Brinkman HJ, Hendrix CS. 2011. Food Insecurity and Violent Conflict: Causes. Consequences, and Addressing the Challenges, World Food Prgramme.

Bonye SZ, Alfred KB, Jasaw GS. 2012. Promoting community-based extension agents as an alternative approach to formal agricultural extension service delivery in Northern Ghana. Asian Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development 2(1), 76–95.

Christoplos I, Kidd A. 2000. Guide for monitoring, evaluation and joint analyses of pluralistic extension support. Lindau: Neuchâtel Group. www.g-fras.org›gfras-publications›neuchatelinitiative

Dowall D, Ellis P. 2007. Urban land and housing markets in the Punjab. Pakistan, World Bank Sustainable Development Department South Asia Region and University of California Berkeley. https://www.econstor.eu/bitstream/10419/59400/1/609264249.

Hellin J. 2012. Agricultural Extension, Collective Action and Innovation Systems: Lessons on Network Brokering from Peru and Mexico. The Journal of Agricultural Education and Extension 18(2), 141–159.

Höckert J, Ljung M. 2013. Advisory Encounters

Towards a Sustainable Farm Development—Interaction between Systems and Shared Lifeworlds. The Journal of Agricultural Education and Extension 19(3), 291–309. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/1389224X.2013.782178

Jehangir WA, Horinkova V. 2002. Institutional constraints to conjunctive water management in the Rechna Doab 50, IWMI. https://www.iwmi.cgiar.org/publications/iwmi-working-papers/iwmi-working-paper-50/

Kimenyi M, Adibe J, Djiré M, Jirgi AJ. 2014. The impact of conflict and political instability on agricultural investments in Mali and Nigeria.

Lopokoiyit M, Onyango C, Kibett JK. 2013. Extension management competency needs of agricultural extension agents in Kenya. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences 4(6), 11.

Malik SM. 1996. Farmers’ Organized Behavior in Irrigated Agriculture in Pakistan’s Punjab: A Case Study of Six Watercourse Command Areas in Junejwala Minor, Loer Chenab Canal System: IWMI.

Manu IN, Bime MJ, Fon DE, Nji A. 2014. Effects of farmer-grazer conflicts on rural development: a socio-economic analysis. Scholors Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Sciences 4, 11-120.

Mugenda A. 2003. Research methods Quantitative and qualitative approaches by Mugenda. Nairobi, Kenya.

National Academy of Engineering. 2012. Adapting Agricultural Extension to Peacebuilding: Report of a Workshop by the National Academy of Engineering and United States Institute of Peace: Roundtable on Technology, Science, and Peacebuilding. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/13428

Okoli A, George Atelhe A. 2014. Nomads against Natives: A Political Ecology of Herder/Farmer Conflicts in Nasarawa State, Nigeria. American International Journal of Contemporary Research 4, 76-88.

Sekeris P. 2010. Land inequality and conflict in sub-saharan africa. Peace Economics, Peace Science and Public Policy 16(2), 1-18.

Siyum BA, Bihon Kassa BS, Gebremedhin MA, Mekelle E. 2015. Farm Land Conflict and its Socio-Economic Consequences in Tahtay Qoraro, Tigray, Ethiopia. International Journal of African and Asian Studies 9, 44-55.

Sovannarith S, Sopheap R, Utey U, Rathmony S, Ballard B, Acharya S. 2001. Social Assessment of Land in Cambodia. A Field Study-working Paper 20.