Effects of grazed exclosure on some of nutrient elements of aerial and underground organs of Artemisia sieberi, Stipa hohenacheriana and Salsola rigida

Paper Details

Research Paper 01/02/2014
Views (157) Download (1)
current_issue_feature_image
publication_file

Effects of grazed exclosure on some of nutrient elements of aerial and underground organs of Artemisia sieberi, Stipa hohenacheriana and Salsola rigida

Maryam Saffariha, Hossein Azarnivand, Ali Tavili
Int. J. Agron. Agri. Res.4( 2), 62-70, February 2014.
Certificate: IJAAR 2014 [Generate Certificate]

Abstract

Grazing management is increasingly aimed at the restoration of rangelands ecosystems. Animal grazing is a global, dominant land use covering more than 25% of the terrestrial surface of the globe and a larger geographic area than any other land use. Overgrazing reduces the usefulness, productivity, and biodiversity of the land and is one cause of rangelands degradation, desertification and erosion. One of the methods of rangelands management and improvement is Exclosure. Exclosure is one of the simplest methods of rangelands improvement. It is considered as an alternative to restore vegetation in degraded rangelands in this region. We studied the effects of 20 years of rangeland exclosure on some of nutrient elements of Artemisia sieberi, Stipa hohenacheriana and Salsola rigida in Roodshoor region, Saveh, Iran. Sampling in exclosure and control treatments was conducted using a systematic randomized method. Four 300-m long transects were randomly located in each area. Plant organs sampling was conducted in first, middle and end of each transect. In both grazing exclusion and control sites two, plant organs samples were taken from aerial (herbage) and underground (roots) organs. Samples in the laboratory were placed in the oven for 24 hours. Then the samples were milled. The plants samples for each organ per site were analyzed in the laboratory of the department of Natural Resources, Tehran University, Iran. In general, results of this study were showed livestock grazing exclosure had no significantly effects on nutrients of NPK and C in plants Salsola, Stipa and Artemisia. Grazed exclosure increase amounts of Na, Ca and Mg on organs of these plants.

VIEWS 1

Asner GP, Elmore EJ, Olander LP, Martin RE, Harris TA. 2004. Grazing systems, ecosystem responses and global change. Annual Review of Environment and Resources 29, 261–299.

Azarnivand H, Zare Chahoki MA. 2011. Rangeland Ecology. Tehran University Press, Tehran, 345pp. (In Persian).

Binkley D, Singer F, Kaye M, Rochelle R. 2003. Influence of elk grazing on soil properties in Rocky Mountain National Park. Forest Ecology and Management 185, 239–247.

Boltz DF, Howel JA. 1978. Colorimetric determination of non-metals. John Wily and sons, New York 197–202.

Bremmer JM, Mulvaney CS. 1982. Nitrogen total, pp. 595–624, in A. L. Pageet al, eds., Methods of soil analysis, part 2: chemical and microbiological properties, vol. 9. ASA Monograph, Madison, WI.

Briggs SV, Taws NM, Seddon JA, Vanzella B. 2008. Condition of fenced and unfenced remnant vegetation in inland catchments in south-eastern Australia. Australian Journal of Botany 56, 590–599.

Bugalho MN, Lecomte X, Goncalves M, Caldeira MC, Branco M. 2011 – Establishing grazing and grazing – excluded patches increases plant and invertebrate diversity in a Mediterranean oak woodland. Forest Ecology and Management 261, 2133–2139.

Chen Y, Awada, Li Y, Shang W, Zhao X. 2012. Juanjuan HanEffects of Grazing Exclusion on Soil Properties and on Ecosystem Carbon and Nitrogen Storage in a Sandy Rangeland of Inner Mongolia, Northern China. Environmental Management 50, 622–632.

Coleman DC, Hendrix PF, Crossley DA. 2004. Fundamentals of Soil Ecology, 2nd ed. Elsevier Academic Press, New York.

Dormaar JF, Smoliak S, Willms WD. 1989. Vegetation and Soil Responses to Short Duration Grazing on Fescue Grasslands. Range management 42(3), 252-256.

Garcia MRL, Sampaio AAM, Nahas E. 2011. Impact of different grazing systems for bovine cattle on the soil microbiological and chemical characteristics. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia 40(7), 1568-1575.

Gad A, Abdel S. 2000 – Study on desertification of irrigated arable lands in Egypt – Egypt. Journal of Soil Science 40, 373–384.

González Megías A, Gómez JM, Sánches Pinero F. 2004. Effects of ungulates on epigeal arthropods in Sierra Nevada National Park (southeast Spain). Biodiversity Conservation 13, 733–752.

Ghorbanian D, Jafari M. 2007. Study of soil and plant characteristics interaction in Salsola rigidain desert lands. Iranian Journal of Range and Desert Research 14(1), 1-7.

Ghozlsfloo N, Mahdavi SKH, Hosseini SA, Arzanesh MH. 2012. Investigation N, P and K in soil, aerial and underground Artemisia sieberi and Salsola denderoides in Tilabad-E- Golestan province. Irannian Journal of plants researches 25(1), 60-68.

Haynes R, Williams P. 1993. Nutrient cycling and soil fertility in the grazed pasture ecosystem. Advances in Agronomy 49(1), 19-199.

Hosseinzadeh G, Jalilvand H, Tamartash R. 2010. Short Time Impact of Enclosure on Vegetation Cover, Productivity and some Physical and Chemical Soil Properties. Journal of Applied Sciences 10, 2001-2009.

Jafari Haghighi M. 2003. Soil analysis methods. Nedaye Zoha Press, 236pp. (In Persian).

Jeddi K, Chaieb M. 2010. Changes in soil properties and vegetation following livestock grazing exclusion in degraded arid environments of South Tunisia. Flora 205,184–189

Kocheki A, Aghaalikhani M, Nasiri M, Khiabani H. 1995. Utilization of rangelands shrubs. Ferdowsi University of Mashhad press. 177pp.

Lindsay EA, Cunningham SA. 2009. Livestock grazing exclusion and microhabitat variation affect invertebrates and litter decomposition rates in woodland remnants. Forest Ecology and Management 258, 178–187.

Nicol A. 1987. Feeding livestock on pasture.Occasional Publication, New Zealand Society of Animal Production 10, 145-154.

Nosetto MD, Jobbagy EG, Paruelo JM. 2006. Carbon sequestration in semi-arid rangelands: comparison of Pinus ponderosa plantations and grazing exclusion in NW Patagonia. Journal of Arid Environments 67,142–156

Olsen SR, Sommers LE. 1982. Phosphorus, pp. 403–430, in A. L. Page et al. eds., Methods of soil analysis, part 2: chemical and microbiological properties, vol. 9. ASAMonograph, Madison, WI.

Parfitta RL, Yeates GW, Rossa DJ, Schon NL, Mackay AD, Wardle DA. 2010 – Effect of fertilizer, herbicide and grazing management of pastures on plant and soil communities – App. Soil Ecology 45, 175– 186.

Pei SF, Fu H, Wan CG. 2008. Changes in soil properties and vegetation following exclosure and grazing in degraded Alxa desert steppe of Inner Mongolia, China. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 124, 33–39

Pineiro G, Paruelo JM, Jobbagy EG, Jackson RB, Oesterheld M. 2009. Grazing effects on belowground C and N stocks along a network of cattle exclosures in temperate and subtropical grasslands of South America. Global Biogeochem 23, 1–14.

Putman RJ, Fowler AD, Tout S. 1991. Patterns of use of ancient grassland by cattle and horses and effects on vegetational composition and structure. Biological Conservation 56, 329–347.

Rahmonov O. 2009. The chemical composition of plant litter of black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) and its ecological role in sandy ecosystems. Journal of Acta Ecologica Sinica 29(4), 237-243.

Rooney TP, Waller DM. 2003. Direct and indirect effects of white-tailed deer in forest ecosystems. Forest Ecology and Management 181, 165–176.

Samways MJ. 2005. Insect Diversity Conservation. Cambridge University Press, New York.

Soderstrom B, Part T, Linnarsson E. 2001 – Grazing effects on between-year variations of farmland bird communities – Ecology Applied 11, 1141–1150.

Shariff AR, Biondini ME, Grygiel C.E. 1994. Grazing intensity effects on litter decomposition andsoil nitrogen mineralization. Journal of range Management 47, 444-449.

Spooner P, Lunt I, Robinson W. 2002. Is fencing enough? The short-term effects of stock exclusion in remnant grassy woodlands in southern NSW. Ecological Management & Restoration 3, 117–126.

Tallowin JRB, Rook AJ, Rutter SM. 2005. Impact of grazing management on biodiversity of grasslands. Animal Science 81, 193–198.

Tessema Z, De Boer W, Baars R, Prins H. 2011. Changes in soil nutrients, vegetation structure and herbaceous biomass in response to grazing in a semi-arid savanna of Ethiopia. Journal of Arid Environments 75, 662-670.

Walkley A, Black IA. 1934. Chromic acid titration for determination of soil organic matter. Soil Science 63, 251-262.

Zarekia S, Jafari M, Arzani H. 2012. Grazing Effects on Some of the Physical and Chemical Properties of Soil. World Applied Sciences Journal 20(2), 205-212.

Zehtabian GH. 2000. Investigation of problems soil and water in desert regions. 55pp.

Zhao HL, Zhao XY, Zhang TH, Zhou RL. 2005 – Desertification processes of sandy rangeland due to over-grazing in semi-arid area, Inner Mongolia, China – Journal of Arid Environment 62, 309–319.