Welcome to International Network for Natural Sciences | INNSpub

Effects of inorganic nutrient P and N application on Azolla biomass growth and nutrient uptake

Research Paper | February 1, 2019

| Download 15

WA Oyange, GN Chemining’wa, JI Kanya, PN Njiruh

Key Words:

Int. J. Agron. Agri. Res.14( 2), 1-9, February 2019


IJAAR 2019 [Generate Certificate]


Rice farmers in Mwea Irrigation Scheme routinely apply P and N fertilizers which affect water nutrient levels. A study was conducted to establish the effects of nutrient N and P application on Azolla biomass accumulation. The study was conducted in a batch culture experiment, using 5g of fresh Azolla biomass samples from each of the six major paddy schemes namely: Mwea, Ahero, West Kano, Bunyala, TARDA, and Taveta. Treatments consisted of 0 and 3mg P l-1 and 0 and 200mg N l-1, laid out in a randomized complete block design replicated three times.  Azolla samples were grown in batch culture plastic pots of 8.4 x 10-3m3 for 10 days using canal water, which was replenished every three days. Fresh Azolla biomass weight was recorded at 0, 5 and 10 days after inoculation. Data was subjected to analysis of variance using SAS statistical package version 9.1 and means separated using the least significant difference test (p≤0.05). The pH levels in irrigation water averaged 7.2 while N, P and K levels were 20.2, 11.6 and 15ppm respectively. Tissue N and K for Azolla accession averaged 4.2% and 1.6% respectively. Biomass accumulation and doubling time of Azolla were significantly affected by exogenous P and N nutrient application. Doubling time ranged from 5.5 days to 6.7. Application N and P significantly reduced Azolla biomass accumulation and increased biomass doubling time.


Copyright © 2019
By Authors and International Network for
Natural Sciences (INNSPUB)
This article is published under the terms of the Creative
Commons Attribution Liscense 4.0

Effects of inorganic nutrient P and N application on Azolla biomass growth and nutrient uptake

Barton LJ. 1948. Photometric method of phosphate rock analysis. Analytical chemistry 20, 1068-1070.

Better Crops. 1999. Potash and phosphate Institute Vol. 83 No. 1.

Bocchi S, Malgioglio A. 2010. Azolla-anabaena as a bio-fertilizer for rice paddy fields in the Po valley, a temperate rice area in northern Italy. International Journal of Agronomy 2010, 152-158.

Campbell R. 2011. Azolla growth in farm dams, Agriculture Victoria. Online-http/agriculture.vic. gov.au/agriculture/farm). Date accessed 14/3/2016

Carrapiço F, Teixeira G, Diniz M. 2000. Azolla as a bio-fertiliser in Africa. A challenge for the future. Revista de Ciências Agrárias 23 (3-4), 120-138.

Choudhury ATMA, Kennedy IR. 2005. Nitrogen fertilizer losses from rice soils and control of environmental pollution problems. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, Volume 36, 2005 – Issue 11-12.

Costa ML, Santos MCR, Carrapico F. 1999. Biomass characterization of A. filiculoides grown in natural ecosystems and waste water. Hydrobiologia 415, 323-327.

Fishman MJ. 1965. The use of atomic absorption for analysis of natural waters.  Atomic absorption newsletter 5, 102-106.

Hussner A. 2010. NOBANIS–Invasive alien species Fact Sheet–Azolla filiculoides, online http/ www.nobanis.org. Date of accessed: 5/4/2014

Jackson ML. 1958. Soil chemical analysis. Prentice-Hall. Englewood Cliffs, N. J. 498.

Kannaiyan S, Kumar K. 2006. Biodiversity of Azolla and its algal symbiont, Anabaena azollae. National biodiversity Authority, Scientific Bulletin Number 2, 1- 31.

Kitoh S, Shiomi N. 1991. Effect of mineral nutrients and combined nitrogen sources in the medium on growth and nitrogen fixation of the Azolla anabaena association. Soil Science and plant nutrition 37(3), 419-426.

Kitoh S, Shiomi N, Uheda E. 1993.  The growth and nitrogen fixation of Azolla filiculoides  Lam. in polluted water. Aquatic botany 46, 129-139.

Kondo M, Kobayashi M, Takahashi E. 1989. Effects of phosphorus on Azolla and its utilization in rice culture in Niger. Plant Soil 120, 165-170.

Pereira AL, Teixeira G, Sevinate-Pinto I, Antunes T, Carrapico F. 2001. Taxonomic re-evaluation of the Azolla genus in Portugal. Plant Biosystems 135, 285-294.

Sadeghi R, Zarkami R, Sabetraftar K, Van Dammel P. 2013.  A review of some ecological factors affecting the growth of Azolla species. Caspian Journal of Environmental Science 11(1), 65-76.

Sah RN, Goyal SS, Rains DW. 1989. Interactive effects of exogenous combined nitrogen and phosphorus on growth and nitrogen fixation by Azolla. Plant and Soils Vol 117, pp 1-8.

Scollenberger and Simon. 1945. Methods used for soil plant and water analysis at soil laboratory of Manitoba 1967-1970.

Singh AL, Singh PK. 1987. Influence of Azolla management on the growth, yield of rice and soil fertility. Plant and Soil 102, 41-47.

Subudhi BP. 1981. Differential phosphorus requirements of Azolla species and strains in phosphorus-limited continuous culture. Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, 27(2), 237-247.  The International Rice Research Institute, Los Baños, Laguna, Philippines

Wagnermg. 1997. Azolla, a review of its biology and utilization. The Botanical Review 63, 1-26.

Watanabe I, Berja SN. 1979. Growth of Azolla in paddy field as affected by phosphorus fertilizer. Soil Science and Plant Nutrition Volume 26, 1980 –Issue 2.

Watanabe I, Berja SN. 1983. The growth of four species of Azolla as affected by temperature. Aquatic Botany 15, 175-185.

Yatazawa MN, Tomomatsu N, Hosoda N, Nunome K. 1980. Nitrogen fixation in Azolla-Anabaena symbiosis as affected by mineral nutrient status.  Soil Science and Plant Nutrition 26, 415-426.