Effects of Murashige and Skoog medium strength on germination and secondary metabolites production of Eleutherococcus senticosus’s somatic embryos in bioreactor

Paper Details

Research Paper 01/03/2013
Views (299) Download (2)

Effects of Murashige and Skoog medium strength on germination and secondary metabolites production of Eleutherococcus senticosus’s somatic embryos in bioreactor

Abdullah Mohammad Shohael, Sayeda Mahfuja Khatun, Mohammad Firoz Alam, Kee Yoeup Paek
Int. J. Biosci.3( 3), 155-163, March 2013.
Certificate: IJB 2013 [Generate Certificate]


Somatic embryos of Eleutherococcus senticosus were germinated into different strength of Murashige and Skoog medium (MS) in balloon type bubble bioreactor (working volume 2Lit) to investigate the effects of medium strength on biomass growth and metabolites production. Fresh weight, dry weight and % dry weight of the germinated somatic embryos increased with the increase of medium strength up to MS2X. Further increase in medium strength decreased all the growth parameters mentioned above significantly. Maximum amount of total eleutheroside (166.37µg/g DW) was obtained in full strength of MS medium but highest chlorogenic acid (2.26 mg/g DW) was obtained in MS2X. Contents of total phenolics and flavonoids were increased with the decrease of MS strength but polysaccharides content increased when medium strength increased. Thus it may explore immense practical applicability in somatic embryos scale up, where the secondary metabolite production from germinated somatic embryos is directly related to MS medium strength.


Betina V. 1994. Physiological regulation of secondary metabolism. In: Betina, V. ed, Bioactive secondary metabolite of microorganisms: process in industrial microbiology. Elsevier Science, Amsterdam & New York, 66-80.

Brekhman II, Dardymov IV. 1969. New substances of plant origin which increase nonspecific resistance. Annual Review of Pharmacology 9, 415. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.pa.09.040169.00 2223

Choi YE, Yang DC, Yoon ES. 1999. Rapid propagation of Eleutherococcus senticosus via direct somatic embryogenesis from explants of germinating zygotic embryos. Plant Cell Tissue and Organ Culture 58, 93-97. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1006318928684

Demain AL. 1992. Microbial secondary metabolism: a new theoretical frontier for academia, a new opportunity for industry. In: Chadwick DJ, Whelan D. eds., Secondary metabolites: their function and evolution, John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, UK, 9.

Folin O, Ciocalteu V. 1927. On tyrosine and tryptophane determination in proteins. Journal of Biological Chemistry 27, 627-650.

Fujita Y, Hara Y, Suga C, Morimoto T. 1981. Production of shikonin derivatives by cell suspension cultures of Lithospermum erythrorhizon. II. A new medium for the production of shikonin derivatives. Plant Cell Reports 1, 61-63. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00269273

Gaffney BT, Hugel HM, Rich PA. 2001. The effects of Eleutherococcus senticosus and Panax ginseng on steroidal hormone indices of stress and lymphocyte subset numbers in endurance athletes. Life Sciences 70, 431-442.

Gui Y, Guo Z, Ke S, Skirvin RH. 1991. Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration in Acanthopanax senticosus. Plant Cell Reports 9, 514-516. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00232108

Ingestad T, Ågren G. 1992. Theories and methods on plant nutrition and growth. Physiologia Plantarum 84, 177–184. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1399-3054.1992tb08781.x

Isoda S, Shoji J. 1994. Studies on the cultivation of Eleutherococus senticosus Maxim. II On the germination and rising of seedling. Nature Medicine 48, 75-81

Lee WT. 1979. Distribution of Acanthopanax plants in Korea. Korean Journal of Pharmacology 10,103-107.

Lindsey K, Yeoman MM. 1983. The relationship between growth rate, differentiation and alkaloid accumulation in cell cultures. Journal of Experimental Botany 34, 1055-1065. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jxb/34.8.1055

Lumsden PJ, Price S, Leifert C. 1990. Effect of mineral nutrition on the growth and multiplication of in vitro cultured plants. In: Nijkamp HJ, Plas VD, Van Aartrijk J, eds. Progress in plant cellular and molecular biology. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, 108-113.

Murashige T, Skoog F. 1960. A revised medium for rapid growth and bioassays with tobacco tissue cultures. Physiologia Plantarum 15, 473–497. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1399-3054.1962.tb08052.x

Paek KY, Chakrabarty D. 2003. Micropropagation of woody plants using bioreactor. In: Jain SM, Ishii K, eds. Micropropagation of woody trees and fruits. Kluwer Academic Publisher, The Netherland, 735-756. (doi http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-010-0125-0_25

Paek KY, Chakrabarty D, Hahn EJ. 2005. Application of bioreactor system for large-scale production of horticultural and medicinal plants. Plant Cell Tissue and Organ Culture 81, 287-300. (doi 10.1007/s11240-004-6648-z)

Patrick NY, Arnason JT, Anwang DVC. 1998. An Improved extraction procedure for the rapid, quantitative high-performance liquid chromatographic estimation of the main eleutherosides (B and E) in Eleutherococcus senticosus (Eleuthero). Phytochemical Analysis 9, 291-295.

Pryce S, Lumsden PJ, Berger F, Nicholas JR, Leifert C. 1993. Effect of plant density and macronutrient on Iris shoot cultures. In. Lumsden PJ, Nicholas JR, Davies WJ, eds. Physiology, Growth and Development of Plants in Culture. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 69-71.

Rokem JS, Goldberg I. 1985. Secondary metabolites from plant cell suspension cultures methods for yield improvement. In: Mizruhi A, van Wezel AL, eds. Advances in Biotechnological Processes, 4 Alan R. Liss, New York, 241-274.

Ružic D, Saric M, Cerovic R, C´ ulafic L. 2000. Relationship between the concentration of macroelements, their uptake and multiplication of cherry rootstock Gisela 5 in vitro. Plant Cell Tissue and Organ Culture 63, 9–14. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1006412901992

Sakano K, Yazaki Y, Okihara K, Mimura K, Kiyota S. 1995. Lack of control in inorganic phosphate uptake by Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don Cells. Plant Physiology 108, 295–302. http://dx.doi.org/10.1104/pp.108.1.295

Sari´c M, Mezei S, Ruži´c D. 1995. Genetic aspects of mineral nutrition of plants grown in vitro. Archives of Biological Science 47, 1-12.

Schmolz MW, Sacher F, Aicher B. 2001. The synthesis of Rantes, G-CSF, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-12 and IL-13 in human whole-blood cultures is modulated by an extract from Eleutherococcus senticosus L. roots. Phytotherapy Research 15, 268-270. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ptr.746

Shohael AM, Chakrabarty D, Yu KW, Hahn EJ, Paek KY. 2005. Application of bioreactor system for large-scale production of Eleutherococcus sessiliflorus somatic embryos in an airlift bioreactor and production of eleutherosides. Journal of Biotechnology 120, 228-236. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiotec.2005.06.010

Shohael AM, Chakrabarty D, Ali MB, Yu KW, Hahn EJ, Lee HL, Paek KY. 2006. Enhancement of eleutherosides production in embryogenic cultures of Eleutherococcus sessiliflorus in response to sucrose-induced osmotic stress. Process Biochemistry 41, 512-518. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.procbio.2005.09.005

Shohael AM, Ali MB, Yu KW, Hahn EJ, Islam RI, Paek KY. 2006. Effect of light on oxidative stress, secondary metabolites and induction of antioxidant enzymes in Eleutherococcus senticosus somatic embryos in bioreactor. Process Biochemistry 41, 1179-1185.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.procbio.2005.12.015

Williams RR. 1993. Mineral nutrition in vitro – A mechanistic approach. Australian Journal of Botany 41, 237–251. http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/BT9930237

Williams RR. 1995. The chemical microenvironment. In: Aitken-Christie J, Kozai T, Smith MAL, eds. Automation and Environment Control in Plant Tissue Culture Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, 405–439.