Int. J. Biosci.12( 6), 334-345, June 2018
Road side (vehicular exhaust) pollution induced significant adverse effects on all types of organisms including plants, animals and humankind. This study was mainly conducted to assess both the quantitative and qualitative damages of vehicles exhaust pollution on road side fruit crops (Malus pumila Miller.) of District Kalat, Balochistan. An experiment was conducted at 5 sites along the national highway, NH-25, Karachi to Chaman. Results revealed that under investigated plant showed significant (P≤0.01) variation both in its physiological and morphological characteristics with respect to the control site samples. Over all reducing % age in leaf length (27.09%), breath (22.95%), petiole length (26.68%), leaf area (36.47%), numbers of fruits plant-1 (46.51%) and fruits and stem diameters (42.0 & 11.3%) and canopy (20.80%) were found in polluted site samples. Similarly consequences indicated that dust fall on leaf surface and relative water contents (RWC) in leaf increased by 82.01 and 18.09 % at polluted sites with respect to their control, respectively. However, M. pumila displayed decrease in, photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate and stomatal conductance with an enhanced level of sub stomatal CO2 concentration, free amino acids and total antioxidant activity at various sites along roads. All these parameters indicate that the road side pollution accumulate on plants may cause perilous effects on the growth, yield, physiological and morphological characteristics of the commercially valuable plants. It can be concluded that as the traffic density is inversely proportional to the growth, yield and other performances of the plant.
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