J. Bio. Env. Sci.5(4), 378-392, October 2014
Wheat grain stored in traditional structures was sampled from four selected districts of Sindh from July 2013 to July 2014 at 3 months interval and was analysed for quality deterioration over time. The maximum ambient temperature was noted in district Shaheed Benazir Abad followed by Sukkur, Hyderabad and Badin districts whereas the maximum relative humidity was observed in district Badin followed by Sukkur, Shaheed Benazir Abad and Hyderabad. The grain temperature followed the pattern of the ambient temperature and was higher than the ambient temperature during whole storage period. Moisture content, insect infestation and aflatoxin content showed an increasing pattern with prolonged storage. Among the storage structures the lowest grain temperature and moisture content were recorded in earthen bin whereas the highest in room structure and bulk covered, respectively. The highest percentage of insect infestation and aflatoxin content was observed in grains stored in room structure whereas, maximum test weight and seed germination capacity were recorded in grain samples taken from earthen bin. The levels of aflatoxins detected in stored wheat from survey districts were far above the internationally accepted standards and that the farmers were at risk of ill health through consuming contaminated wheat. It was concluded that the quality of wheat stored using traditional storage methods in surveyed districts was low and that these storage methods were inadequate for protecting stored wheat from pests. Modification of these structures or replacing with better designed storage structures can stop deterioration and improve grain quality and storability.
AACC. 2000. Approved Methods of American Association of Cereal Chemists. The American Association of Cereal Chemists. Inc., St. Paul, Minnesota, USA.
Abba JE, Lovato A. 1999. Effect of Packing Material and Moisture Content on the viability of seed paddy. Tropical Agriculturist 141, 37 – 54.
Ahmad M, Irshad M, Shahid M. 1998. Loss assessment in stored wheat in three villages of Gilgat. Pakistan Journal of Zoology 30, 41-46.
Ahmed H. 1984. Losses incurred in stored food grain by insect pests: A review. Directorate of Scientific Information, Pakistan Agricultural Research Council, Islamabad.
Alabadan BA, Oyewo OA. 2005. Temperature variation within wooden and metal grain silos in the tropics during storage of maize. Leonardo Journal of Sciences, 59 – 67.
Anwar M, Ashfaq M, Hassan M, Sagheer M, Javed A. 2006. Warehouse application of ricinus communis oil for organic management of stored wheat grain pest insects. Proc. Int’l Symp. on Sustainable Crop Improvement and Integrated Management. Sep. 14 -16, 2006. Faculty of Agriculture University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan.
Bostan N, Naeem M. 2002. Evaluation of resistance in some wheat cultivars to Tribolium castaneum under laboratory conditions. Asian Journal of Plant Sciences 1, 95-98.
Dubale B, Waktole S, Solomon A, Geremew B, Sethu MR. 2012. Influence of agro-ecologies, traditional storage containers and major insect pest on stored maize in selected woredas of Jimma zone. Asian Journal of Plant Science 11(5), 226-234.
Farrel G, Hodges R. 2004. Crop Post Harvest: Science and Technology; Blackwell Publishers: USA, Vol. 2, 3rd Edition, Chapter 3, p. 20–23.
Firdous S, Ejaz N, Aman T, Khan N. 2012. Occurrence of aflatoxins in export quality Pakistani rice. Food Additives and Contaminants: Part B. 5 (2), 121-125.
Giray B, Girgin G, Engin AB, Aydin S, Sahin G. 2007. Aflatoxin levels in wheat samples consumed in some regions of Turkey. Food Control 18, 23–29.
Gonzalez-Torralba J, Arazuri S, Jaren C, Arregui LM. 2013. Influence of temperature and relative humidity during storage on wheat bread making quality. Journal of stored products research 55, 134-144.
Government of Sindh (GOP). 2008. Development statistics of sindh, bureau of statistics, planning and development department, Government of sindh Karachi, Pakistan.
Government of Pakistan (GOP). 2013. Pakistan Economic Survey, Finance Division, Economic Advisor’s Wing, Islamabad, Pakistan. pp. 21–22. www.finance.gov.pk
Haile A. 2006. On-farm storage of chicpea, sorghum and whart in Eritrea. Drylands Coordination Group (DCG) Report No. 42. Miljøhuset G9, Norway.
Hodges RJ, Buzby JC, Bennett B. 2011. Postharvest losses and waste in developed and less developed countries: opportunities to improve resource use. Journal of Agricultural Science 149, 37-45.
Hruskova V, Machova D. 2002. Changes of wheat flour properties during short term storage. Czech Journal of Food Sciences 20, 125-130.
Ilelejia KE, Maier DE, Woloshukb CP. 2007. Evaluation of different temperature management strategies for suppression of Sitophilus zeamais (Motschulsky) in stored maize. Journal of Stored Products Research 43(4), 480–488.
Iqbal SZ, Bhatti IA, Asi MR, Bhatti HN, Sheikh MA. 2010. Aflatoxin contamination in chilies from Punjab Pakistan with reference to climate change. International Journal of Agricultural and Biology 13, 261-265.
Iram W, Anjum T, Abbas M, Khan AM. 2014. Aflatoxins and ochratoxin A in maize of Punjab, Pakistan. Food Additives and Contaminants: Part B. 7(1), 57-62.
ISTA.1996. International Rules for Seed Testing. Vol. 24, International Seed Testing Association, Zurich, Switzerland.
Jayas DS, White NDG. 2003. Storage and drying of grain in Canada: low cost approaches. Food Control 14, 255-261.
Jia CC. 1995. Study of heat and mass transfer inside grain kernel and temperature pattern in grain storage bin. PhD. Thesis, Beijing Agricultural Engineering University, China.
Kaaya AN, Kyamuhangire W. 2006. The effect of storage time and agroecological zone on mold incidence and aflatoxin contamination of maize from traders in Uganda. International Journal of Food Microbiology 110, 217 – 223.
Karaoglu MM, Aydeniz M, Halis GK, Kamil EG. 2010. A comparison of the functional characteristics of wheat stored as grain with wheat stored in spike forms. International Journal of Food Science and Technology 45, 38–47.
Karunakaran C, Muir WE, Jayas DS, White NDG, Abramson D. 2001. Safe storage time of high moisture wheat. Journal of Stored Products Research 37, 303-312.
Khankari KK, Morey RV, Patankar SV. 1994. Mathematical model for moisture diffusion in stored grain due to temperature gradients. Transactions of the ASAE 37(5), 1591–1604.
Kraszpulski P. 1985. Khapra bettle – a quarantine pest Trogoderma granarium Everts. Ochrana Rostlin 294, 8-9.
Magan N, Hope R, Cairns V, Aldred D. 2003. Post-harvest fungal ecology: impact of fungal growth and mycotoxin accumulation in stored grain. European Journal of Plant Pathology 109, 723-730.
McFarlane JA. 1989. Guidelines for pest management research to reduce stored food losses caused by insects and mites, ODNRI. Bulletin No. 22, UK, p. 7–10.
Mills JT. 1983. Insect-fungus associations influencing seed deterioration. Phytopathology 73, 330–335.
Muir WE, Sinha RN. 1998. Physical properties of cereals and oilseeds cultivars grown in Western Canada. Canadian Agricultural Engineering 15, 31-34.
Nasir M, Butt M, Anjum FM, Sharif K, Minhas R. 2003. Effect of moisture on shelf life of wheat flour. International Journal of Agricultural and Biology 5(4), 458-459.
Ngamo TSL, Ngassoum MB, Mapongmestsem PM, Haubruge E, Lognay G, Hance T. 2007. Current post harvest practices to avoid insect attacks on stored grains in Northern Cameroon. Agricultural Journal 2, 242–247.
Ngamo LST. 2000. Protection integrated stocks of cereals and food legumes. Phytosanitary News Bulletin 26 and 27, 13-15.
Onesironsan PT. 1982. Effect of seed coat type on the susceptibility of cowpeas to invasion by storage fungi. Journal of Seed Science and Technology 10, 631-637.
Pence JW, Mecham DK, Olcoh HS. 1988. Storage of Cereal Grains. 1st Edition. Western Utilisation Research Branch, Department of Agriculture Calif.: USA, p. 46–52.
Pomeranz Y, Hall GE, Czuchajowska Z, Lai FS. 1986. Test weight, hardness and breakage susceptibility of yellow dent corn hybrids. Cereal Chemistry 63, 349-351.
Prasad H, Bhatia P, Sethi GR. 1977. Estimation of feeding losses by Trogoderma granarium Everts in wheat. Indian Journal of Entomology 39, 377-378.
Proctor DL. 1994. Grain storage techniques. Evolution and Trends in Developing Countries. FAO Agricultural Services Bulletin No. 109. FAO, Rome.
Rani PR, Chelladurai V, Jayas DS, White NDG, Kavitha-Abirami C. 2013. Storage studies on pinto beans under different moisture contents and temperature regimes. Journal of Stored Products Research 52, 78-85.
Saleemullah, Iqbal A, Khalil IA, Shah H. 2006. Aflatoxin contents of stored and artificially inoculated cereals and nuts. Food Chemistry 98, 699- 703.
Sawant AA, Patil SC, Kalse SB, Thakor NJ. 2012. Effect of temperature, relative humidity and moisture content on germination percentage of wheat stored in different storage structures. Agricultural Engineering International: CIGR Journal 14 (2), 110 – 118.
Shanahan JF, Brown WM, Blunt TD. 2003. Aflatoxins. Colorado State University, Cooperative Extension. Crop Series: Production. No. 0.306. <http:// www.ext.colostate.edu/pubs/CROPS/ 00306.pdf>.
Steel RGD, Torrie JH. 1980. Principles and Procedure of Statistics. McGraw Hill Book Co. Inc: New York, USA. p. 663.
Stephen OF, Olajuyigbe O. 2006. Studies on stored cereal degradation by Alternaria tenuissima. Acta Botanica Maxicana 77, 31-40.
Tefera T, Kanampiu F, De Groote H, Hellin J, Mugo S, Kimenju S, Beyene Y, Boddupalli PM, Shiferaw B, Banziger M. 2011. The metal silo: an effective grain storage technology for reducing post-harvest insect and pathogen losses in maize while improving smallholder farmers’ food security in developing countries. Crop Protection 30, 240-245.
Turner PC, Sylla A, Gong YY, Diallo MS, Sutcliffe AE, Hall AJ, Wild CP. 2005. Reduction in exposure to carcinogenic aflatoxins by postharvest intervention measures in West Africa: a community-based intervention study. Lancet 365, 1950–1956.
Udoh JM, Cardwel KF, Ikotun T. 2000. Storage structures and aflatoxin content of maize in five agro-ecological zones of Nigeria. Journal of Stored Products Research 36, 187-201.
Wambugu PW, Mathenge PW, Auma EO, Rheenen HA. 2009. Efficacy of traditional maize (Zea mays L.) seed storage methods in western Kenya. African Journal of Food Agriculture, Nutrition and Development 9, 1110-1128.
Weinberg ZG, Yan Y, Chen Y, Finkelman S, Ashbell G, Navarro S. 2008. The effect of moisture level on high-moisture maize (Zea mays L.) under hermetic storage conditions – in vitro studies. Journal of Stored Products Research 44, 136–144.
White ND, Jayas DS. 1993. Microfloral infection and quality deterioration of sunflower seeds as affected by temperature and moisture content during storage and the suitability of the seeds for insect or mite infestation. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 73, 303–313.