Effects of using subsurface drip irrigation and treated municipal wastewater on olive (Olea. europaea L.)

Paper Details

Research Paper 01/12/2014
Views (265) Download (5)

Effects of using subsurface drip irrigation and treated municipal wastewater on olive (Olea. europaea L.)

Khosro Estaki Oregoni
J. Bio. Env. Sci.5( 6), 67-74, December 2014.
Certificate: JBES 2014 [Generate Certificate]


The aim of this study was to evaluate and validate the effects of using treated wastewater on the vegetative growth and nutrients content of three years old zard olive (Olea. europaea L.) trees.The experiments were carried out for 4 years (2009 – 2013) in random complete blocks in three treatments with six repetitions. The treatments were: subsurface drip irrigation with wastewater (T1), subsurface drip irrigation with wastewater in 15 cm depth (T2) and subsurface drip irrigation with wastewater in 30 cm depth (T3). Wastewater from the treatment plant of the Boroujerd, Iran was used. The present study was designed to determine the effect of subsurface drip irrigation with wastewater in 30 cm depth as compared to other treatments had higher growth parameters, nutrients content and had seen significant difference. Another important finding was that drip irrigation T1 with wastewater, had lower growth parameters as compared to another treatments. In T3, plants absorb water and essential elements, better than other treatments because irrigation source is near the root zone.


Andria RD, Morelli G. 2002. Irrigation regime affects yield and oil quality of olive trees. Acta Horticulturae. (ISHS). 586, 273-276.

Asgari KP, Najafi P, Soleymani A, Larabi R. 2007. Effects of Treated Municipal Wastewater on Growth Parameters of  Corn in Different Irrigation Conditions. Journal of Biological Sciences. 7(8), 1430-1435. http://dx.doi.org/10.3923/jbs.2007.1430.1435

Bahati M, Singh G. 2003. Growth and mineral accumulation in Eucalyptus camaldulensis Seedlings irrigated with mixed industrial effluents. Bioresource Technology. 88(3), 221-228. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0960-8524(02)00317-6

Bryla DR, Banuelos GS, Mitchell JP. 2003. Water requirements of subsurface drip-irrigated faba bean in California. Irrigation Science. 22(1), 31-37. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00271-003-0065-7

Carter MR. 1993. Soil Sampling and Methods of Analysis. 1st Edn., CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL., USA.

Chartzoulakis K. 2005. Salinity and olive: Growth, salt tolerance, photosynthesis and yield. Agricultural Water Managment. 78(1&2), 108-121. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2005.04.025

Erel R, Dag A, Ben-Gal A, Schwartz A, Yermiyahu U. 2008. Flowering and fruit-set of young olive (Olea europea L. cv. Barnea) trees in response to nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science. 133(5), 639-647.

Galavi M, Jalali A, Ramroodi M, Mousavi R, Galavi H.2010. Effects of treated municipal wastewater on soil chemical properties and heavy metal uptake by sorghum (Sorghum Bicolor L.). Journal of Agricultural Science. 2(3), 235 – 241. http://dx.doi.org/10.5539/jas.v2n3p235

Girona J, Luna M, Arbonés A, Mata M, Rufat J, Marsal J. 2002. Young olive trees responses (Olea europea, cv arbequina) to different water supplies. Water function determination. Acta Horticulturae. (ISHS). 586, 277-280.

Hamilton A, Stagnitti F, Xiong X, Kreidl SL, Benke KK. 2007. Wastewater irrigation: the state of play. Vadose Zone Journal. 6, 823–840. http://dx.doi.org/10.2136/vzj2007.0026

Hussein AHA.2008. Response of Manzanillo Olive (Olea europaea, L.) Cultivar to Irrigation Regime and Potassium Fertigation under Tabouk Conditions, Saudi Arabia. Journal of Agronomy. 7, 285-296. http://dx.doi.org/10.3923/ja.2008.285.296

Jackson ML. 1973. Soil Chemical Analysis. 1st Edn., Prentice Hall of India Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, India.

Kiziloglu FM, Turan M, Sahin U, Angin I, Anapali O, Okuroglu M. 2007. Effects of wastewater irrigation on soil and cabbage-plant (Brassica olerecea var. capitate cv. yalova-1) chemical properties. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science. 170(1),166–172. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jpln.200621971

Lamm FR, Trooien TP .2003. Subsurface drip irrigation for corn productivity: A review of 10 years of research in Kansas. Irrigation Science. 22(3&4), 195-200. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00271-003-0085-3

Martinez Hernandez JJ, Bar–Yosef B. Kafkafi U. 1991. Effect of surface and subsurface drip fertigation on sweet corn rooting, uptake, dry matter production and yield. Irrigation Science. 12(3), 153–9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00192287

Meli S, Maurizio M, BellignoA, Bufo SA, Mazzatura A, Scopa A. 2002. Influence of irrigation with lagooned urban wastewater on chemical and microbial soil parameters in a citrus orchard under Mediterranean condition. Science of the Total Environment. 285(1-3), 69-77. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0048-9697(01)00896-8

Moran R, Porath D. 1980. Chlorophyll determination in instact tissues using N-N-dimethyl formamide. Plant Physiology. 65, 478-479.

Murphy J, Riley JP. 1962. A modified single solution method for the determination of phosphate in natural waters. Analitica Chimica Acta. 27, 31-36. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0003-2670(00)88444-5

Palese AM, Pasquale V, Celano G, Figliuolo G, Masi S, Xiloyannis C .2009. Irrigation of olive groves in Southern Italy with treated municipal wastewater:Effects on microbiological quality of soil and fruits Agriculture. Ecosystems and Environment.129, 43–51. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2008.07.003

Najafi P. 2006. Effects of using subsurface drip irrigation and treated municipal waste water in irrigation of tomato. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences. 9, 2672-2676. http://dx.doi.org/10.3923/pjbs.2006.2672.2676

Oron G, Campos C, Gillerman L, Salgot M. 1999. Wastewater treatment, renovation and reuse for agricultural   irrigation   in   small   communities. Agricultural   Water   Management. 38,  223-234. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0378-3774(98)00066-3

Oron G, Demalach Y, Hoffman Z, Nanor Y. 1992.  Effect  of  effluent  quality  and  application method on agriculture productivity and environmental  control.  Water  Science  Technology. 26, 1593-1601.

Rahil MH, Antonopoulos VZ. 2007. Simulating soil water flow and nitrogen dynamics in a sunflower field irrigated with reclaimed waste water. Agricultural   Water   Management.   92,  142-150. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2007.05.019

Ramirez-Fuentes  E,  Lucho-Constantino  C, Escamilla-Silva  E,  Dendooven  L. 2002. Characteristics and carbon and nitrogen dynamics in soil irrigated with waste water for different lengths of time. Bioresource   Technology.   85,   179-187. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0960-8524(02)00035-4

Thompson TL, Doerge TA, Godin RE.  2002. Subsurface drip irrigation and fertigation of broccoli. I. Yield, quality, and nitrogen uptake. Soil Science Society of   American   Journal.   66,   186–192. http://dx.doi.org/10.2136/sssaj2002.1860