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Research Paper | November 15, 2022

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Effects on liver somatic index, erythrocyte nuclear abnormalities and biliary metabolites of PAH in Oreochromis niloticus exposed to water-borne crude oil

GDSR. Piumali, SHNP. Gunawickrama, KB. Suneetha Gunawickrama

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Int. J. Biosci.21(5), 184-191, November 2022

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12692/ijb/21.5.184-191

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Abstract

Exposure to crude oil has detrimental effects on both marine and freshwater biota, yet the focus on the latter is relatively low, especially in lentic environments with minimal dispersion. The present study investigated the short-term effects of sub-lethal crude oil on Oreochromis niloticus with reference to liver somatic Index (LSI), erythrocyte nuclear abnormalities (ENA), and bile PAH metabolite types. Two groups of sub-adult fish of the same brood cohort were maintained in a static renewal system, i.e., the treatment group with crude oil dispersed in water (nominal v/v approximation of 50 ppm simulating a slight oil slick) in three replicates, and one control group with no crude oil (n=15/ tank). Sampling was done initially, and on the 4th, 8th, 12th and 16th day post-exposure. Three bile PAH metabolite types were estimated by fixed wavelength fluorescence (FF). LSI and standardized bile florescence values at each sampling point were expressed as % difference from the control. Relative LSI calculated as deviation from the control increased by water-borne crude oil in the fish over 16-day period. Higher ENA counts (p<0.05) were found in the exposed group (nuclear buds, notched nuclei, and lobbed nuclei) on 16th day compared to the pre-exposure fish. Relative values of FF-detected, protein-standardized naphthalene and phenanthrene metabolites showed more than 30% and 130% increase respectively on day 12 compared to control fish. The results showed that crude oil can induce changes in LSI, ENA and bile metabolite levels in freshwater fish O. niloticus.

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Effects on liver somatic index, erythrocyte nuclear abnormalities and biliary metabolites of PAH in Oreochromis niloticus exposed to water-borne crude oil

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