Welcome to International Network for Natural Sciences | INNSpub

Effects on liver somatic index, erythrocyte nuclear abnormalities and biliary metabolites of PAH in Oreochromis niloticus exposed to water-borne crude oil

Research Paper | November 15, 2022

| Download 38

GDSR. Piumali, SHNP. Gunawickrama, KB. Suneetha Gunawickrama

Key Words:

Int. J. Biosci.21( 5), 184-191, November 2022

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12692/ijb/21.5.184-191


IJB 2022 [Generate Certificate]


Exposure to crude oil has detrimental effects on both marine and freshwater biota, yet the focus on the latter is relatively low, especially in lentic environments with minimal dispersion. The present study investigated the short-term effects of sub-lethal crude oil on Oreochromis niloticus with reference to liver somatic Index (LSI), erythrocyte nuclear abnormalities (ENA), and bile PAH metabolite types. Two groups of sub-adult fish of the same brood cohort were maintained in a static renewal system, i.e., the treatment group with crude oil dispersed in water (nominal v/v approximation of 50 ppm simulating a slight oil slick) in three replicates, and one control group with no crude oil (n=15/ tank). Sampling was done initially, and on the 4th, 8th, 12th and 16th day post-exposure. Three bile PAH metabolite types were estimated by fixed wavelength fluorescence (FF). LSI and standardized bile florescence values at each sampling point were expressed as % difference from the control. Relative LSI calculated as deviation from the control increased by water-borne crude oil in the fish over 16-day period. Higher ENA counts (p<0.05) were found in the exposed group (nuclear buds, notched nuclei, and lobbed nuclei) on 16th day compared to the pre-exposure fish. Relative values of FF-detected, protein-standardized naphthalene and phenanthrene metabolites showed more than 30% and 130% increase respectively on day 12 compared to control fish. The results showed that crude oil can induce changes in LSI, ENA and bile metabolite levels in freshwater fish O. niloticus.


Copyright © 2022
By Authors and International Network for
Natural Sciences (INNSPUB)
This article is published under the terms of the Creative
Commons Attribution Liscense 4.0

Effects on liver somatic index, erythrocyte nuclear abnormalities and biliary metabolites of PAH in Oreochromis niloticus exposed to water-borne crude oil

Aas E, Beyer J. 1998. PAH in fish bile detected by fixed wavelength fluorescence. Marine Environmental Research 46(1-5), 225-228.

Adipah S. 2019. Introduction of Petroleum Hydrocarbons contaminants and its human effects. Journal of Environmental Science and Public Health 3(1), 1-9.

Agah H, Leermakers M, Elskens M, Fatemi SMR, Baeyens W. 2009. Accumulation of trace metals in the muscles and liver tissues of five fish species from the Persian Gulf. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 157, 499-514.

Baali A, Kammann U, Qoraychy I, Yahyaoui A. 2016. Bile metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in three species of fish from Morocco. Environmental Science 28(1), 25. DOI: 10.1186/s12302-016-0093-6.

Barseine J, Dedonyte V, Rybakovas A, Andreikenaite L, Andersen OK. 2006. Investigation of micronuclei and other nuclear abnormalities in peripheral blood and kidney of marine fish treated with crude oil. Aquatic Toxicology 78, 99-104.

Corredor-Santamaría W, Mora-Solarte DA, Arbeli Z, Navas JM, Velasco-Santamaría YM. 2021. Liver biomarkers response of the neotropical fish Aequidens metae to environmental stressors associated with the oil industry. Heliyon 7(7), https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2021.e07458.

Fernandes TCC, Mazzeo DEC, MarinMolares MA. 2007. Mechanism of micronuclei formation in polyploidizated cells of Allium Cepa exposed to trifluralin herbicide. Pest Biochemistry Physiology 88, 252-259.

Fletcher GL, King MJ, Kiceniuk JW, Addison RF. 1982. Liver hypertrophy in winter flounder following exposure to experimentally oiled sediments. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology C: Comparative Pharmacology 73(2), 457-62. DOI: 10.1016/0306-4492(82)90153-8.

Fuentes-Rios D, Orrego R., Rudolph A, Mendoza G, Gavila’n JF, Barra R. 2005. EROD activity and biliary fluorescence in Schroederichthys chilensis (Guichenot 1848): Biomarkers of PAH exposure in coastal environments of the South Pacific Ocean. Chemosphere 61, 192-199.

Ghisi NC, Oliveira EC, Guiloski IC, de Lima SB, de Assis HCS, Longhi SJ, Prioli AJ. 2017. Multivariate and integrative approach to analyze multiple biomarkers in ecotoxicology: A field study in Neotropical region. Science of the Total Environment 609, 1208-1218.

Gomes JMM, Ribeiro HJ, Procopio MS, Alvarenga BM, Castro ACS, Dutra WO, Silva JBBD, Correa JD. 2015. What the erythrocyte nuclear alterations frequencies could tell us about genotoxicity and macrophage iron storage. PLOS One 10(11), 1-22.

Gunawickrama SHNP, Panawala PDSM, Gunawickrama KBS. 2016. Impaired growth and erythrocyte nuclear lesions of immature Oreochromis niloticus exposed to waterborne crude oil: persistent responses. Sri Lanka Journal of Aquatic Science 21(2), 113-124.

Ibemenuga KN. 2013. Impacts of crude oil on freshwater fish fauna, its control and management measures. Animal Research International 10(3), 1799-1804.

Insausti D, Maite C, Francesco M, Joan EC, Montserrat S. 2009. Biliary florescent aromatic compounds (FAcs) measured by fixed wavelength florescence (FF) in several marine fish species from NW Mediterranean. Marine Pollution Bulletin 58(11), 1635-1642.

Islam MS, Tanaka M. 2004. Impacts of pollution on coastal and marine ecosystems including coastal and marine fisheries and approach for management: a review and synthesis. Marine Pollution Bulletin 48(7-8), 624-649.

Kaponee KZ, Chiger A, Kakulu II, Vorhees D, Heigher-Bernays W. 2015. Petroleum contaminated water and health symptoms: A cross sectional pilot study in a rural Nigerian community. Environmental Health 14, 86.

Kusuma Dewi N, Prabowo R. 2017. Determination of Liver Somatic Index (LSI) and Gonadosomatic Index (GSI) value of Carp (Cyprinus carpio) and Nile Tilapia (Perca fluviatilis). International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications 7(6), 220-223.

Marigómez I, Soto M, Orbea A, Cancio I, Cajaraville MP. 2004. Biomonitoring of environmental pollution along the Basque coast, using molecular, cellular and tissue-level biomarkers: an integrative approach. Oceanography and Marine Environment of the Basque Country, Elsevier Oceanography Series, Elsevier, Amsterdam 70, 335-364.

Marina M, Carmago and Claudia Martinez BR. 2007. Histopathology of gills, kidney and liver of a neotropical fish caged in an urban stream. Neotropical Ichthyology 5(3), 327-336.

Miller HC, Mills GN, Bembo DG, Macdonald JA, Evans CW. 1999. Induction of cytochrome P4501A (CYPIA) in Trematomus bernachi as an indicator of environmental pollution in Antarctica: assessment by quantitative RT-PCR. Aquatic Toxicology 44, 183-193.

Nikanorov AM, Stradomskaya AG. 2009. The role of biogenic hydrocarbons in the assessment of oil pollution of freshwater bodies. Water Resources 36, 57-63. https://doi.org/10.1134/S0097807809010059.

Onwura INE, Ogugua VN, Onyike NB, Ochonogor AE, Otitoju OF. 2007. Crude oil spills in environment, effects and some innovative clean-up biotechnologies. International Journal of Environmental Research 1(4), 307-320.

Pantung N, Helanderkg, Helander HF, Cheevaporna V. 2008. Histopathological alterations of hybrid walking catfish (Clarias macrocephalus x Clarias gariepinus) in acute and sub-acute Cadmium exposure. Environment Asia 1, 22-27.

Papoulias DM, Veléz V, Nicks DK, Tillitt DE. 2014. Health Assessment and Histopathologic Analyses of Fish Collected from the Kalamazoo River, Michigan, Following Discharges of Diluted Bitumen Crude Oil from the Enbridge Line 6B. US. Department of the Interior, US. Geological Survey.

Pathiratne A, Hemachandra CK, Pathiratne KAS. 2010. Assessment of bile florescence patterns in a tropical fish, Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) exposed to naphthalene, phenanthrene, pyrene and chrysene using fixed wavelength florescence and synchronous florescence spectrometry. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination & Toxicology 84, 554-558.

Pulster EL, Main K, Wetzel D, Murawski S. 2017. Species-specific metabolism of naphthalene and phenanthrene in 3 species of marine teleosts exposed to Deepwater Horizon crude oil. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 36(11), 3168-3176. https://doi.org/10.1002/etc.3898.

Ranasingha RATCS, Pathiratne A. 2015. Histological alterations and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure indicative bile florescence patterns in fishes from Koggala lagoon, Sri Lanka. Journal of National Science Foundation Sri Lanka 43(1), 65-73.

Sanchez W, Katsiadaki I, Piccini B, Ditche JM, Porcher JM. 2008. Biomarker responses in wild three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus L.) as a useful tool for freshwater biomonitoring: A multiparametric approach. Environment International 34(4), 490-498.

Santos R, Joyeux A, Besnard A, Blanchard C, Halkett C, Bony S, Devaux A. 2017. An integrative approach to assess ecological risks of surface water contamination for fish populations. Environmental Pollution 220, 588-596.

Van der Oost R, Beyer Jonny, Vermeulen NPE. 2003. Fish bioaccumulation and biomarkers in environmental risk assessment: a review. Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology 13(2), 57-149.

Van der Oost R, Lopes SCC, Komen H, Satumalay K, Van den Bos R, Heida H, Vermeulen NPE. 1998. Assessment of environmental quality and inland water pollution using biomarker responses in caged carp (Cyprinus carpio); use of a bioactivation: Detoxification ratio as Biotransformation index (BTI). Marine Environmental Pollution 46, 315-319.

Yadav KK, Trivedi SP. 2006. Evaluation of Genotoxic potential of chromium (VI) in Channa punctata fish in terms of chromosomal aberrations. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention 7, 472-476.