Efficacy of different insecticides against gram pod borer (Helicoverpa armigera) and their safety to the beneficial fauna

Paper Details

Research Paper 01/02/2021
Views (451) Download (27)

Efficacy of different insecticides against gram pod borer (Helicoverpa armigera) and their safety to the beneficial fauna

Arzlan Abbas, Wangying, Muhammad Usman, Fatima Arshad, Muhammad Ali, Muhammad Awais Arshad, Asim Iqbal, Aqsa Abbas, Chen Ri-Zhao
Int. J. Biosci.18( 2), 82-88, February 2021.
Certificate: IJB 2021 [Generate Certificate]


Helicoverpa armigera is a serious pest of Chickpea. This study was conducted to determine the comparative efficacy of eight different insecticides viz; Novaluron 10 EC, Flubendiamide 480 SC, Emmamectin benzoate 1.9 EC, Spinosad 240 SC, Bifenthrin 10 EC, Bacillus thuringensis (Bt), Lufenuron 5% EC and Spinetoram 120 SC against the larvae of H. armigera and their safety to beneficial insects on chickpea in experimental area of Entomological Research Institute, Faisalabad Pakistan were recorded. After 3 days of insecticidal application, Bifenthrin and Emmamectin benzoate showed highest reduction of the larval population (86.53%, 76.80%), after 7 days of insecticidal application Bt and Lufenuron showed highest mortality percentages (84.97%, 77.33%) and then after 14 days with the application of Bt and Lufenuron (76.47%, 68.33%) mortality percentages were recorded. After 3 days, Lufenuron and Spinetoram gives highest population survival of the beneficial insects as compared to other insecticides. After 7 days, Bt and Spinetoram while after 14 days the highest survival percentages were recorded in Bt and Lufenuron. Considering the results of the experiment Bacillus thuringensis, Bifenthrin and Lufenuron found to be the most effective insecticide while Novaluron and Flubendiamide were least effective insecticides for the control of H. armigera.


Ahmad M, Arif MI, Ahmad Z. 1995. Monitoring insecticide resistance of Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Pakistan. Journal of Economic Entomology 88, 771-776. https://doi.org/10.1093/jee/88.4.771.

Anonymous. 2014. Economic survey of Pakistan, Islamabad.

Atwal AS, Dhaliwal GS. 1997. Pests of pulse crop. In: Agricultural Pests of South Asia and their management, Kalyani Publishers, New Delhi, India, p 202-208.

Chaudhary JP, Yadav LS, Rustogi KB. 1980. Chemical control of gram pod borer, Heliothis armigera Hubner and semi-loopers, Plusia spp. on gram, Cicer arietinum L. Haryana Journal of Agricultural Research 10, 324-328.

Deka NK, Prasad D, Chand P. 1987. Succession and incidence of insect pests in chickpea, Cicer arietinum L. Giornale Italiano di Entomol 3, 421-428.

Gohokar RT, Thakre SM, Borle MM. 1985. Chemical control of gram pod borer (Heliothis armigera Hubner) by different synthetic pyrethroids and insecticides. Pesticides 19, 39-40.

Jadhav RS, Suryawanshi DS. 1998. Chemical control of Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) on chickpea. Journal of Maharashtra agricultural universities 23, 83–84. Google Scholar. Accessed on 18th Nov, 2020.

Khan MM, Rustamani MA, Talpur MA, Balouch HB, Chhutto AB. 1993. Efficacy of different insecticides against Heliothis armigera  (Hub.) on gram. Pakistan Journal of Zoology 25, 117-119.

Khan SM, Faizullah S. 1999. Varietal Performance of grams and comparative effectiveness of three insecticides against gram pod borer (Helicoverpa armigera). Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences 4(2), 1435-1437. Google Scholar. Accessed on 23th Nov, 2020.

Kharkwal MC, Jain HK, Sharma B. 1988. Induced mutations for improvement of chickpea, lentil, pea and cowpea. In: Improvement of grain legume production using induced mutations. IAEA Vienna (1), 89-109. Accessed on 18th Nov, 2020. https://inis.iaea.org/collection/NCLCollectionStore/_Public/19/082/19082840.pdf?r=1.

Lal OP. 1996. An outbreak of pod borer, H. armigera (Hubner) on chickpea in Eastern Uttar Pradesh, India. Journal of Entomology Research 20, 179-181. Accessed on 18th Nov, 2020. https://www.cabi.org/ISC/abstract/19961109027.

Patel CC, Koshiya DJ. 1999. Population dynamics of gram pod borer, Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) Hardwick on cotton, pigeon pea and chickpea. Gujarat Agricultural Universities Research Journal 24(2), 62-67. Accessed on 15th Nov, 2020. https://eurekamag.com/research/003/528/003528622.php.

Phokela A, Dhingra S, Sinha SN, Mehrotra KN. 1990. Pyrethroid resistance in Heliothis armigera Hubner Development of resistance in field. Pesticide Research Journal 2, 28-30.

Rashid A, Saeed HA, Akhtar LH, Siddiqi SZ, Arshad M. 2003. Comparative Efficacy of Various Insecticides to control Gram pod borer (Helicoverpa armigera) on Chick pea. Asian Journal of Plant Sciences 2(4), 403-405. https://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajps.2003.403.405

Rizvi SMA, Chandhary MB, Pandey V, Upadhyay VK. 1986. Efficacy and economics of some insecticides in the management of Heliothis armigera Hubner. Indian Journal of Plant Protection 14, 47-50.

Rupela OP, Toomsan B, Mittal S, Dart PJ, Thompson JA. 1987. Chickpea rhizobium  populations: Survey of influence of season, soil depth and cropping pattern. Soil biology and Biochemistry 19(3), 247-252. https://doi.org/10.1016/0038-0717(87)90005-8

Sarwar M, Ahmad N, Toufiq M. 2009. Host Plant Resistance Relationships in Chickpea (Cicerarietinum L.) Against Gram Pod Borer (Helicoverpa armigera).Pakistan Journal of Botany 41(6), 3047-3052. Accessed on 12th Nov, 2020. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/277830624_

Sarwar M, Ahmad N, Toufiq M. 2011. Identification of Susceptible and Tolerant Gram (Cicerarietinum L.) Genotypes against Gram Pod Borer (Helicoverpa armigera) (Hubner).Pakistan Journal of Botany 43(2), 1265-1270. Accessed on 16th Nov, 2020. http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=

Sharma RK, Chawla RP. 1992. Residues of cypermethrin in chickpea crop. Journal of Insect Science 5, 103-104.

Singh HM, Singh R, Rizvi SMA. 1987. Screening of synthetic pyrethroids against Heliothis armigera attacking chickpea. Narendra Deva journal Agriculture Research 2, 140-143.

Summerfield RJ, Roberts EH. 1985. Grain Legume Crop. Collins 8 Grafton Street, London, UK. 266-311.

Tahhan O, Sithanantham S, Hari G, Reed W. 1982. Heliothis species infesting chickpea in Northern Syria. International Chickpea Newsletter 6, 21.