Efficacy of greenhouse system for the hydroponic fodder production: A Review

Paper Details

Review Paper 01/01/2020
Views (446) Download (18)

Efficacy of greenhouse system for the hydroponic fodder production: A Review

Sohail Raza Haidree, Zia-Ul-Haq, Muhammad Ansar, Hamza Muneer Asam, Talha Mehmood, Abdul Qadeer, Muhammad Kazim Nawaz, Hafiz Muhammad Qasim
Int. J. Biosci.16( 1), 363-374, January 2020.
Certificate: IJB 2020 [Generate Certificate]


Livestock requires year-round fodder supply for their proper growth and milking. However, in conventional agriculture fodder is only available during short span of growing season. Growing fodder in hydroponics by using re-circulating nutrient solution and drip irrigation without soil in controlled environment is an innovative idea for year round production especially during slack period when it is not available for livestock. It is a water conservative technique, have various advantages over conventional growing methods. It minimizes water wastage by using drip irrigation system and nutrient film technique. The problems of water damage the quality of fodder. Hydroponically grown fodders are usually diseases and pesticides free. Greenhouse ideal environment increases efficiency of fodder production as compared to conventional farming. Animal’s production is severely affected by scarcity of quality food. The cost of production included, system establishment costs, cost of water gadgets, nutrients, cost of environmental control devices, seed, electricity and labors cost etc. are essential for a successful hydroponics fodder growing system. Feeding of hydroponically grown fresh fodder to animals result in increase of meat and milk production, and increase overall performance of animals. Quality of soilless green fodder is prominently depends on the management of hydroponic system. Many kinds of fodder crops i.e. barley, oats, wheat, sorghum, alfalfa, cowpea and maize can be grown in soilless culture. This paper, highlighted different work conducted on fodder production under greenhouse condition. Additionally, the present work highlighted potential impact of year round fodder production on food, agriculture, socio-economic conditions and livelihood of farmers.


Al-Karaki GN, Al-Hashimi M. 2011. Green fodder production and water use efficiency of some forage crops under hydroponic conditions. ISRN Agronomy.

Al-Karaki GN, Al-Momani N. 2011. Evaluation of some barley cultivars for green fodder production and water use efficiency under hydroponic conditions. Jordan Journal of Agricultural Sciences  173(798), 1-21.

Al-Karaki GN. 2011. Utilization of treated sewage wastewater for green forage production in a hydroponic system. Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture 80-94.

Anonymous. 2015. Fresh nutritious, fodder every day, reliable organic feed, Obs: observation, DM: dry matter, CP: crude protein, EE: ether extract CF: crude fibre, NFE: nitrogen free extract, Ash: ash AIA: acid insoluble ash SE: standard error hydroponic fodder systems.

BBS. 2015. Statistical Yearbook of Bangladesh, Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics, Statistics Division, Ministry of Planning, Government of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh, Dhaka.

Bill C, Pavel R. 2002. Growing cattle feed hydroponically. Meat and Livestock Australia

Biradar N, Kumar V. 2013. Analysis of fodder status in Karnataka. The Indian Journal of Animal Sciences, ISSN 0367-8318.

Brithal PS, Jha AK. 2005. Economic losses due to various constraints in dairy production in India. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences 1470-1475.

Bustos CDE, Gonzalez EL, Aguilera BA, Esptnoza GJA. 2000. Forraje hidropónico, una alternativa para la suplementación caprina en el semidesierto queretano. Reunión Nacional de Investigación Pecuaria. Puebla 38, 383.

Chavan J, Kadam SS. 1989. Nutritional improvement of cereals by sprouting. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 28(5), 401-437.

Christie E. 2014. Water and nutrient reuse within closed hydroponic systems.

Chung TY, Nwokolo EN, Sim JS. 1989. Compositional and digestibility changes in sprouted barley and canola seeds. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition 39(3), 267-278.

Cooper AJ. 1996. The ABC of NFT: Nutrient Film Technique: the World’s first method of crop production without a solid rooting medium. 2nd ed. p 171.

Dung DD, Goodwin IR, Nolan JV. 2010. Nutrient content and in sacco digestibility of barley grain and sprouted barley. Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances 9(19), 2485-2492.

FAO. 2015. Alternative fodder production for vulnerable herders in the West Bank. Resilience promising practice.

Fazaeli H, Golmohammadi HA, Tabatabayee SN, Asghari-Tabrizi M. 2012. Productivity and nutritive value of barley green fodder yield in hydroponic system. World Applied Sciences Journal 16(4), 531-539.

Finney PL. 1982. Effect of germination on cereal and legume nutrient changes and food or feed value. A Compressive review”. Recent Advances in Phytochemistry 17, 229-305.

Graves CJ. 1983. The nutrient film technique. Horticutural Review 5, 1-44.

Heins BJ, Paulson JC, Chester-Jones H. 2015. Evaluation of forage quality of five grains for use in sprouted fodder production systems for organic dairy cattle. Journal of Dairy Science 98.

Islam R, Jalal N, Akbar MA. 2016. Effect of seed rate and water level on production and chemical analysis of hydroponic fodder. European Academic Research 4(8), 724- 6753.

Islam S, Begum J, Sarker NR. Khatun M. 2013.Cost-return analysis of fodder production in selected areas of Bangladesh. Bangladesh Journal of Livestock Research 20(1&2), 54-67.

Jensen H, Malter A. 1995. Protected agriculture a global review. World Bank technical paper number 253, 156 p.

Jensen MH, Rorabaugh PA. Garcia A. 1998. Comparing five growing media for physical characteristics and tomato yield potential. Proc. of Am. Soc. Plasticulture 27, 31-34.

Jeton S. 2016. Hydroponic fodder production. ‘Feed the future programme’ of US Government Broadening horizons #48 10 global hunger & food security initiative in Ethiopia sponsored by USAID.

Lorenz K. 1980. Cereal sprouts: composition, nutritive value, food applications. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 13(4), 353-385.

Marisco G, Miscera E, Dimatteo S, Minuti F, Vicenti A, Zarrilli A. 2009. Evaluation of animal welfare and milk production of goat fed on diet containing hydroponically germinating seeds. Italian Journal of Animal Science 8(2), 625-627.

McKenzie RA, Kelly MA, Shivas RG, Gibson JA, Cook PJ, Widderick K, Guilfoyle AF. 2004. Aspergillus clavatus tremorgenic neurotoxicosis in cattle fed sprouted grains. Australian Veterinary Journal 82(10), 635-638.

Mincera E, Ragni M, Minuti F, Rubino G, Marisco G, Zarrilli A. 2009. Improvement of sheeo welfaee and milk production fed on diet containing hydroponically germinating seeds. Italian Journal of Animal Science 8(2), 634-636.

Mohsen MK, Abdel-Raouf EM, Gaafar HMA, Yousif AM. 2015. Nutritional evaluation of sprouted barley grains on agricultural by-products on performance of growing New Zealand white rabbits. Natur. Sci. 13(10), 35-45.

Mooney J. 2002. Growing cattle feeds hydroponically. Meat and Livestock Australia.

Morgan J, Hunter RR, O’Haire R. 1992. Limiting factors in hydroponic barley grass production. 8th International congress on soilless culture, Hunter’s Rest, South Africa.

Mysaa A. 2016. Effect of hydroponic barley fodder on Awassi lambs performance. Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare 6, 60-64.

Naik PK, Dhawaskar BD, Fatarpekar DD, Karunakaran M, Dhuri RB, Swain BK, Singh NP. 2017. Effect of feeding hydroponics maize fodder replacing maize of concentrate mixture partially on digestibility of nutrients and milk production in lactating cows.

Naik PK, Dhuri RB, Karunakaran M, Swain BK, Singh NP. 2014. Effect of feeding hydroponics maize fodder on digestibility of nutrients and milk production in lactating cows. Indian Journal of Animal Science 84(8), 880-883.

Naik PK, Dhuri RB, Singh NP. 2011. Technology for production and feeding of hydroponics green fodder. Extension Folder No. 45/ 2011, ICAR Research Complex for Goa.

Naik PK, Dhuri RB, Swain BK, Singh NP. 2012. Nutrient changes with the growth of hydroponics fodder maize. Indian Journal of Animal Nutrition 29(2), 161-163.

Naik PK, Gaikwad SP, Gupta MJ, Dhuri RB, Dhumal GM, Singh NP. 2013. Low cost devices for hydroponics fodder production. Indian Dairyman  65(10), 68-72.

Naik PK, Singh NP. 2013. Hydroponics fodder production: An alternative technology for sustainable livestock production against impeding climate change. MTC on Management Strategies for Sustainable Livestock Production against Impending Climate Changes. 70-75.

Olympios CM. 1955. Overview of soilles culture: advantages. constraints and perspectives for its use in mediterranean. Cahiers Options Méditerranéennev 31, 307-324.

Peer DJ, Leeson S. 1983. Feeding value of hydroponically sprouted barley for poultry and pigs.

Putnam DH, Robinson PH, Lin E. 2013. Does hydroponic forage production make sense? alfalfa & forage news. News and information from UC Cooperative Extension about alfalfa and forage production. Retrieved 16, 17.

Reddy GVN, Reddy MR, Reddy KK. 1988. Nutrient utilization by milch cattle fed on rations containing artificially grown fodder. Indian Journal of Animal Nutrition 5(1), 19-22.

Runia WT. 1994. Elimination of root-infecting pathogens in recirculation water fromclosed cultivation systems by ultra-violet radiation. Acta Hoti, 361-371.

Saidi ARM, Omar JA. 2015. The biological and economic feasibility of feeding barley green fodder to lactating awassi ewes. Open Journal of Animal Sciences 5(02), 99.

Schwarz D, Franken P, Krumbein A, Kläring H, Bar-Yosef B. 2009 Nutrient management in soilless culture in the conflict of plant, microorganism, consumer and environmental demands. Acta Hort. 843, 27-34.

Shipard I. 2005. How can i grow and use sprouts as living food?. Stewart Publishing.

Sinsinwar S, Teja K. 2012. Development of a cost effective, energy sustainable hydroponic fodder production device. Agri. Engineering Interns. III, Kharagpur. pp, 335.

Sneath R, McIntosh F. 2003. Review of hydroponic fodder production for beef cattle. Department of Primary Industries: Queensland Australia 84, 54.

Snow AM, Ghaly AE, Snow A. 2008. A comparative assessment of hydroponically grown cereal crops for the purification of aquaculture waste water and the production of fish feed. Am. J. Agric. Biol. Sci. 3(1), 364-378.

Sonneveld C, 2002. Composition of nutrient solutions. In D. Savvas & H.C. Passam, eds. Hydroponic production of vegetables and ornamentals, p. 179-210.

Tensingh G, Rachel P, Jemimah E, Muthuramalingam T. 2015. Low cost hydroponic device. New technologies for livestock farmers. University Research Farm, Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, pp. 28.

Tranel LF. 2013. Hydroponic fodder systems for dairy cattle?. Animal Industry Report 659(1), 42.

Tudor G, Darcy T, Smith P, Shallcross F. 2003. The intake and live weight change of drought master steers fed hydroponically grown young sprouted barley fodder (Autograss), Department of Agriculture, Western Australia.

Yocum LE. 1925. The translocation of food materials of the wheat seedling. J. Agron. Res 31, 727.

Yvonne K. 2016. Hydroponic fodder: Increasing milk production and income! YAP-Youth Agripreneur Project.