Welcome to International Network for Natural Sciences | INNSpub

Epidemiology of oral lip and tongue cancer: Patients study at IRNUM hospital Peshawar, Pakistan

Research Paper | November 1, 2016

| Download 8

Ruqqaya Ali, Muhammad Tariq, Syed Umar Farooq, Tariq Aziz, Nadia Khadim, Ghulam Nabi

Key Words:

Int. J. Biosci.9( 5), 57-65, November 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12692/ijb/9.5.57-65


IJB 2016 [Generate Certificate]


There are several types of oral cancers, but around 90% are squamous cell carcinomas, originating in the tissues that line the mouth and lips. In the present study, we assess the frequency of mouth and lip cancer, different grades and treatment strategies in various groups divided on the bases of age, economic and marital status. The data was collected from the biochemistry department of the Institute of Radiotherapy and Nuclear Medicines (IRNUM) cancer hospital, situated in Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK),in a period of January to December 2010. Data analysis indicated that there were 77 cases of oral cancer, including 66% males and 34% females. The results showed that people in age groups 51-60- and 61-70 were mostly affected (27.27%). Most of the patients (51.95%) were treated with radiotherapy (RT). Majority presented in the well-differentiated grade 1 (42.86 %). The high Incidence rate was investigated in married patients (4.81%). The most affected peoples occupation wise were house wives (28.57%), including lip patients (22.50%) and tongue patients (35.13%) followed by farmers (15.85%), including oral lip patients (15%) and oral tongue patients (16.21%). The other common site was oral lip cancer (52%). Data analysis revealed that out of 40 oral lip cancer patients, 40% were males and 12% were females. A large number of oral lip cancer patients (50%) were treated with radiotherapy. Predominant incidence (32.50%) was in the well differentiated grade 1. The married diseased subjects were highly affected (95%) as compared to unmarried. Radiotherapy was the most common treatment (50.05%).  Advance age groups, especially house wives and farmers were mostly affected by mouth and oral lip cancer. Mostly the cancer was in the well-differentiated grade 1, treated mainly by radiotherapy.


Copyright © 2016
By Authors and International Network for
Natural Sciences (INNSPUB)
This article is published under the terms of the Creative
Commons Attribution Liscense 4.0

Epidemiology of oral lip and tongue cancer: Patients study at IRNUM hospital Peshawar, Pakistan

Andre K, Schraub S, Mercier M, Bontemps P. 1995. Role of alcohol and tobacco in the aetiology of head and neck cancer: a case-control study in the Doubs region of France. European Journal of Cancer with Oral Oncology B 31, 301-309. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0964-1955(95)00041-0

Balaram P, Sridhar H, Rajkumar T, Vaccarella S, Herrero R, Nandakumar A, Ravichandran K. 2002. Oral cancer in southern India: the influence of smoking, drinking, pan chewing and oral hygiene. International Journal of Cancer 98, 440-445. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.10200.

Bhurgri Y, Bhurgri A, Hussainy AS, Usman A, Faridi N, Malik J. 2003. Cancer Oral Cavity and Pharynx in Karachi; Identification of potential risk factors. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention 4, 125-30.

Brandizzi D, Gandolfo M, Velazco ML, Cabrini RL, Lanfranchi HE. 2008. Clinical features and evolution of oral cancer: A study of 274 cases in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Medicina Oral, Patologia Oral, CirugiaBucal 13, 544-8.

Canto MT, Devesa SS. 2002. Oral cavity and pharynx cancer incidence rates in the United States, 1975-1998. Oral Oncology 38, 610-17. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1368-8375(01)00109-9.

Chaudhry S, Khan AA, Mirza KM, Iqbal HA, MasoodY,Khan NR, Izhar F. 2008. Estimating the burden of head and neck cancers in the public health sector of Pakistan. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention 9, 529-32.

Chen YK, Huang HC, Lin LM, Lin CC. 1999. Primary oral squamous cell carcinoma: an analysis of 703 cases in southern Taiwan. Oral Oncology 35, 173-39. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1368-8375(98)00101-8.

Edwards BK, Howe HL, Ries LA, Thun MJ, Rosenberg HM, Yancik R. 2002.Annual report to the nation on the status of cancer, 1973-1999, featuring implications of age and aging on U.S. cancer burden. Cancer 94, 2766-2792. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djv048.

Elwood JM, Pearson JC, Skippen DH, Kackson DH. 1984. Alcohol, smoking, social and occupational factors in the etiology of cancer of oral cavity, pharynx and larynx. International Journal of Cancer 34, 603-612. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.2910340504.

Evans JF, Shah JP. 1981. Epidermoid carcinoma of the palate. American Journal of Surgery 142, 451-455.

Franceschi S, Bidoli E, Baron AE, Barra S, Talamini R, Serraino D, Vecchila CL. 1991. Nutrition and cancer of the oral cavity and pharynx in Northeast Italy. International Journal of Cancer 47, 20-25. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.2910470105.

Franco EL,  Kowalski LPOliveira BVCurado MPPereira RNSilva MEFava ASTorloni H. 1989. Risk factors for oral cancer in Brazil- case control study. International Journal of Cancer 43, 992- http://dx.doi.org/1000.10.1002/ijc.2910430607.

Gorsky M, Epstein JB, Oakley C, Le ND, Hay J, Stevenson-Moore P. 2004. Carcinoma of the tongue: a case series analysis of clinical presentation, risk factors, staging, and outcome. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology and Endodontic 98, 546-52.

Harrison LB, Session RB, Hong WK. 1999.eds. Head and Neck Cancer: A Multidisciplinary Approach. Philadelphia, Pa: Lippincott-Raven.

Iamaroon A, Pattanaporn K, Pongsiriwet S, Wanachantararak S, Prapayasatok S, Jittidecharaks S. 2004. Analysis of 587 cases of oral squamous cell carcinoma in northern Thailand with a focus on young people. International Journal of  Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 33, 84-88.

Jagannatha GV. 2005. Oral cancer prevalence and assessment of various risk factors among oral cancer patients attending Kidwai memorial institute of oncology-an epidemiological study. MDS Thesis submitted to Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Health Sciences, Bangalore, Karnataka.

Keller AZ. 1970. Cellular Types, Survival, Race, Nativity, Occupation, Habits and Associated Diseases in the Pathogenesis of Lip Cancers. American Journal of Epidemiology 91-486.

Ko YC, Huang YL, Lee CH, Lin LM, Tsai CC. 1995. Betel quid chewing, Cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption related to oral cancer in Taiwan. Journal of Oral.

Laramore GE,  Scott CBal-Sarraf MHaselow REErvin TJWheeler RJacobs JRSchuller DEGahbauer RASchwade JG. 1992. Adjuvant chemotherapy for respectable squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck: report of intergroup study. International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology 23, 705-13.

Lindqvist C, Teppo L. 1978. Epidemiological evaluation of sunlight as a risk factor of lip cancer. British Journal of Cancer 37, 983-989.

Mayne ST, Morse DE, Winn DM. 2006.Cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx. In: Schottenfeld, D., Fraumeni, Jr, JF., editors. Cancer epidemiology and prevention.New York: Oxford University Press. 674-96.

Melrose RJ. 2001. Premalignant oral mucosal diseases. Journal of California Dental Association 29, 593-600.

Menck HR, Garfinkel L, Dodd GD. 1991. Preliminary report of the national cancer database. CA: A Cancer Journal of Clinician 41, 7-18.

Naylor MF, Farmer KC. 1997. The case for sun screens. A review of their use in preventing actinic damage and neoplasia. Archives of Dermatology 133, 1146-54.

Nicolau SG, Balus L. 1964. Chronic Actinic Cheilitis and Cancer of the Lower Lip. British Journal of Dermatology 76-278.

Ostman J, Anneroth G, Gustafsson H, Tavelin B. 1995. Malignant oral tumors in Sweden1960-1989 an epidemiological study. Oral Oncology 31, 106–12.

Parkin DM, Bray F, Ferlay J, Pisani P. 2005.Global cancer statistics, 2002. CA: A Cancer Journal of Clinician 55, 74-108.

Parkin DM, Pisani P, Ferlay J. 1999.Estimates of the world wide incidence of 25 major cancers in 1990.International Journal of Cancer 80, 827-41. Pathology and Medicines 24, 450-453.

Paymaster JC. 1956. Cancer of the buccal mucosa a clinical study of 650 cases in Indian patients: Cancer431-435.

Pisani P, Parkin DM, Bray F, Ferlay J. 1999.  Estimates of the world wide mortality from 25 cancers in 1990. International Journal of Cancer 83, 18-29.

PMRC (Pakistan Medical Research Council) cancer study group. 1982. Multi-center study of Malignant tumors. PMRC Monograph No.6, Karachi.

Pogoda JM, Preston-Martin S. 1996. Solar radiation, lip protection and lip cancer risk in Los Angeles County women (California, United States). Cancer Causes Control 7, 458-63.

RGSREW (Registrar General Statistical Review of England and Wales) for the Three Years 1968-1970. Supplement on Cancer. London: H.M.S.O. 1975.

Shah SH, Shah SN, Rizwan U, Zen-un N. 1993.Prevalence and patterns of tobacco use in rural areas of Peshawar. Journal of Ayub Medical College 6, 5-8.

Silverman S. 1990. Epidemiology. Oral cancer. 3th ed. Book of The American Cancer Society. Atlanta -The United States of America; 1-6.

Son YH, Kapp DS. 1985. Oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancer in a younger population. Cancer 55, 441-444.

Srivastava SP, Sharma SC. 1968. Gingival cancer. Indian Journal of Cancer 24, 89-97.

Stanko P, Satko I, Czako L, Beno M, Danko J, Zmeko S. 2007. Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity. Journal of Brastisavskel Lekarske Listy 108, 292-296.

Tarvainen L, Suuronen R, Lindqvist C, Malila N. 2004. Is the incidence of oral and pharyngeal cancer increasingin Finland? An epidemiological study of 17,383 cases in 1953-1999. Oral Diseases 10, 167-72. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.16010825.2003.00999.x.

Veness MJ, Ong C, Cakir B, Morgan G. 2001. Squamous cell carcinoma of the lip. Patterns of relapse and outcome: Reporting the West mead Hospital experience, 1980-1997. Australian Radiology 45, 195-9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.14401673.2001.00902.x.

Victor WF. 2002. The epidemiology of oral and pharynx cancer in Brazil. Oral Oncology 38, 737-746.

Warnakulasuriya KA, Ralhan R. 2007. Clinical, pathological, cellular and molecular lesions caused by oral smokeless tobacco–a review. Journal of Oral Pathology and Medicines 36, 63-77. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.16000714.2007.00496.x.

Waterhouse J, Muir C, Correa P, Powell J. Cancer Incidence in Five Continents, III. Lyon: I.A.R.C. No. 15.

WHO.  study group report on control of oral cancer in developing countries Bull. 1982. WHO6, 17-30.

Wynder EL, Kabat G, Rosenberg S. 1983. Oral cancer and mouth wash use. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 70, 255-260. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnci/70.2.251.