Establishment and diversity assessment of permanent monitoring plots in both natural and plantation forests in Southern Philippines

Paper Details

Research Paper 01/07/2019
Views (419) Download (35)

Establishment and diversity assessment of permanent monitoring plots in both natural and plantation forests in Southern Philippines

Alex S. Olpenda, Adrian M. Tulod
J. Bio. Env. Sci.15( 1), 22-29, July 2019.
Certificate: JBES 2019 [Generate Certificate]


This study was conducted as an initial endeavor in understanding long-term dynamics and responses of both natural and plantation forests to changes in climate in terms of species diversity, composition and abundance. Grid-based database was made for each type of forest to be used for monitoring and analysis. A total of 111 species with 88 genera under 42 families out of 4,569 individuals were gathered from the two plots. Significant difference (p <0.05) was observed between the two collections with only less than 10% common species. Findings showed that the species diversity in both types of forest is quite low. In the combined plots though, 31% endemism was observed with 21 threatened species suggesting the importance of the area as potential conservation site. Extending the sampling area in the natural forest is a future plan as supported by the rarefaction analysis performed.


Amoroso VB, Amoroso CB, Coritico FP. 2012. Diversity and Status of Plants in Three Mountain Ecosystems in Southern Mindanao, Philippines. Asian Journal of Biodiversity 3(83), pp. 50-73.

Arances JB, Amoroso VB, Gruezo WS, Ridsdale C, Visser L, Tan BC, Rufila LV, Galvezo JV, Opiso GS, Comilap R, Lumaray C, Comilap C, Pacut N, Montimar B, Sacal S. 2004. Development of a Participatory Methodology for Inventory and Assessment of Floral Resources and their Characterization in the Montane Forests of Mt. Malindang. Biodiversity Research Programme (BRP) for Development in Mindanao: Focus on Mt. Malindang and Environs. SEARCA Philippines: PDM Press.

Bantayan NC, Rodantes E, Abraham G, Fernando ES. 2008. Geodatabase Development for Forest Restoration and Biodiversity Conservation in the Mt. Makiling Forest Reserve, Philippines. The Philippine Agriculturist 91(4), pp 365-371.

Cassells D, Svanquist N, Hauselmann NV, Young K, Umali RM. 2000. Achieving the ITTO Objective 2000 and Sustainable Forest Management in the Philippines. A Report Submitted to The International Tropical Timber Organization (ITTO). Diagnostic Mission Established under Decision 2(XXIX), pp 14.

Fernando ES, Co L, Lagunzad DA, Gruezo WS, Barcelona F, Madulid DA, Lapis AB, Texon GI, Manila AC, Zamora PM. 2008. Threatened Plants of the Philippines: A Preliminary Assessment. Asia Life Sciences. Supplement 3, pp. 52.

Jenkins K, Woodward A, Schreiner E. 2002. A Framework for Long-term Ecological Monitoring in Olympic National Park: Prototype for the Coniferous Forest Biome. USGS Forest and Rangeland Ecosystem. USA: Science Center, Olympic Field Station, Port Angeles. pp 175.

Madulid DA, Tandang DN, Agoo EMG. 2009. Assisted natural regeneration and biodiversity in the Philippines. In proceedings of the Regional Workshop on Advancing the Application of Assisted Natural Regeneration for Effective Low-Cost Restoration. Bangkok: FAO.

Madulid DA. 1996. Permanent forest and non-forest inventory plot protocol. Philippine Flora Newsletter 9, pp. 2.

McIntosh RI. 1967. An index of diversity and the relation of certain concepts to diversity. Ecology 48, pp 392-404.

Moura-Costa P. 1996. Tropical forestry practices for carbon sequestration. In: Zchulte A, Schone D, editors. Dipterocarp Forest Ecosystems: Towards Sustainable Management. Singapore: World Scientific. pp 308-334.

Muellner AN, Samuel R, Chase MW, Pannell CM, Greger H. 2005. Aglaia (Meliaceae): An Evaluation of Taxonomic Concepts Based on DNA Data and Secondary Metabolites. American Journal of Botany 92(3), pp 534-543.

Pipoly JJ, Madulid DA. 1998. Composition, structure and diversity of a Philippine submontane moist forest in Mt. Kinasalapi, Kitanglad range, Mindanao, In: Dallmeier F and Comiskey JA, editors. Forest Biodiversity Research, Monitoring and Modeling. Paris: Parthenon Publishing Group. pp 591-600.

Shannon CE, Weaver W. 1963. The mathematical theory of communication. University of Illinois Press, Urbana.

Shugart HA, Sedgio R, Sohngen B. 2003. Forest and Global Climate Change: Potential Impacts of US Forest Resources. USA: Arlington, VA.

Simpson EM. 1949. Measurement of diversity. Nature 163, pp 688.

Smith R, Smith T. 2002. Elements of Ecology 4th Ed. USA: Addison-Wesley Longman, Inc. Available at: [Date accessed: March 26, 2013]

Verhaegen D, Inza JF, Logossa AZ, Ofori D. 2010. What is the genetic origin of teak (Tectona grandis L.) introduced in Africa and in Indonesia? Tree Genetics and Genomes. Springer 6, pp 717-733.