Welcome to International Network for Natural Sciences | INNSpub

Paper Details

Research Paper | October 1, 2015

| Download 1

Estimation of the heavy metal concentration in the poultry meat being produced in Kasur

Rohma Imran, Almas Hamid, Rana Amjad

Key Words:

J. Bio. Env. Sci.7(4), 62-75, October 2015


JBES 2015 [Generate Certificate]


Poultry meat forms a vital part of the daily di et al., over the world. However, the poultry meat is not always as healthy as it seems; it is also being affected by environmental pollution, especially heavy metals which have the potential to bioaccumulate and biomagnify and hence pose a potential hazard to human health. The present study was carried out to assess the contamination of poultry meat. Different meat samples, including 11 samples of chicken heart, 6 samples of chicken kidney and 12 samples of leg tissue, wing tissue, leg bone, wing bone, backbone, ribcage and neck bone each were collected from the Kasur city which is seriously polluted due to tanning industry. All the samples were analysed for heavy metals (arsenic, cadmium, copper, chromium, mercury, iron, lead, manganese, nickel and zinc) via the Inductively Coupled Plasma- Spectrophotometer. When compared with the reference standards stipulated by the WHO and EU, cadmium and lead exceeded the reference standards in all the chicken meat, liver and bones samples. Lead and mercury also exceeded the limit set by ANZFA. All the meat samples were under the permissible limit set for arsenic, copper and zinc by ANZFA and for chromium set by EU. Manganese exceeded the permissible limit set by WHO in only wing bone and backbone while nickel was high in all chicken parts than the tolerable level set by WHO.


Copyright © 2015
By Authors and International Network for
Natural Sciences (INNSPUB)
This article is published under the terms of the Creative
Commons Attribution Liscense 4.0

Estimation of the heavy metal concentration in the poultry meat being produced in Kasur

ACGIH, American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, Ohio, USA. 2001. Manganese and Inorganic Compounds. 1-6 p.

Afzal M, Sabir G, Iqbal S, Khalid MZ. 2013. Assessment of Heavy Metal Contamination in Soil and Groundwater at Leather Industrial Area of Kasur, Pakistan. CLEAN- Soil, Air, Water 42, 1133-1139.

Akan CJ, Abdulrahman IF, Sodipo AO, Chiroma YA. 2012. Distribution of heavy metals in the liver, kidney and meat of beef, mutton, caprine and chicken from Kasuwan Shanu Market in Maiduguri Metropolis, Borno State, Nigeria. Research Journal of Applied Sciences, Engineering and Technology 2, 743-748.

Alarcon DPJ, Alarcon NNM, Garcia LH, Martinez LCM. 1996. Determination of selenium in meat products by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry – selenium levels in meat, organ meat and sausages in Spain. Journal of Agricultrural and Food Chemistry 44, 1494-1497.

Allan G, Robert CA, O’ Reilly JSD, Stewart MJ, James S. 1995. Clinical Biochemistry. 2nd Ed. Harcourt Brace and Company Ltd., 114–5 1995 p.

ANL, Argonne National Laboratory, Environmental Science Division (EVS). 2005. Human Health Fact Sheet. (accessed Sept 2014). http://www.ead.anl.gov/pub/doc/zinc.pdf

ANZFA, Australia New Zealand Food Authority. Retrieved from: URL:http://www.anzfa.gov.au

Baykov BD, Stoyanov MP, Gugova ML. 1996. Cadmium and lead bioaccumulation in male chickens for high food concentrations. Toxicological and Environmental Chemistry 54, 155–9.

Brewer JG. 2010. Risks of copper and iron toxicity during aging in humans. Chemical Research in Toxicology 23, 319 – 326.

Boyd EH. 2007. The relationship of the toxic effects of mercury to exacerbation of the medical condition classified as Alzheimer’s Disease. Medical Veritas 4, 1510 – 1524.

Carpenter OD. 2001. The effects of metals on the nervous system of humans and animals. International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health 14(3), 209 -218.

Cavania A.  2005.  Breaking  tolerance  to  nickel. Toxicology 209, 119-126.

Charles EK, Margaret HC. 1993. Environmental Science. 3rd Ed. London: Prentice–Hall publishers, p. 258–66.

Cunningham WP, Saigo WB. 1993. Environmental Science a Global Concern. 4thEd. New York: WMC Brown Publisher, 389 p.

Demirezen D, Uruç K. 2006. Comparative study of trace elements in certain fish, meat and meat products. Meat Science 74, 255-260.

Diagma V, Farhang M, Khan GSM, Jafarzadeh N. 2004. Heavy metals (Ni, Cr, Cu) in the karoon waterway river, Iran. Toxicology letters 151, 63.

Duffus JH. 1980. Environmental Toxicology. London: Edward Arnold Publishers Ltd.

EU, European Parliament of the Council, Brussels, Belgium. 2001. Setting Maximum Levels for Certain Contaminants in Foodstuffs. Report No. 466/2001.

EU, European Parliament of the Council. Brussels. Belgium. 2002. Setting Maximum Levels for Certain Contaminants in Foodstuffs. Report No. 466/2002.

FSAI, Food Safety Authority of Ireland, Dublin, Ireland. 2009. Mercury, lead, cadmium, tin, arsenic in food.

Gangwar KKD. 2012. Metal concentration in textile and tannery effluents, associated soils and ground water. New York Science Journal 3, 82-89.

Gu YH, Kodama H, Sato E, Mochizuki D, Yanagawa Y, Takayanagi M. Prenatal diagnosis of Menkes disease by genetic analysis and copper measurement. Brain & Development 24, 715-8.

Hamid A, Yaqub G, Sadiq Z, Tahir A, Noor ul Ain. 2013. Intensive report on total analysis of drinking water quality in Lahore. International Journal of Environmental Sciences 3, 2161-2171.

Hanan M TE, El-Enaen NHA, Wafa FA. 2012. Comparative study between the levels of some heavy metals in foreign breed broiler tissues and others in balady chicken tissues. Proceedings of the 5th Scientific Conference of Animal Wealth Research in the Middle East and North Africa, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt 1, 191-199.

Horky D, Illek J, Pechova A. 1998. Distribution of heavy metals in calf organs. Veterinary Medicine 43, 331–42.

Hossain MMA, Monir T, Haque URAAM, Kazi IAM, Islam SM, Elahi FS. 2007. Heavy metal concentration in tannery solid wastes used as poultry feed- The Ecotoxicological Consequences. Bangladesh Journal of Science and Industrial Research 42, 397-416.

Hunt JM. W.H Freeman and Company, San Francisco. 1996. Petroleum Geochemistry and Geology.

Imran R, Hamid A, Amjad R, Chaudhry CMA, Yaqub G. 2014. Evaluation of heavy metal concentration in the poultry feeds. Journal of Biodiversity and Environmental Sciences 5, 394-404.

IOCCC, International Office of Cocoa, Chocolate and Confectionery, Washington, DC. 1996. Heavy Metals.

Ionescu G, Novotny J, Stejskal V, Lätsch A, Blaurock-Busch E, Eisenmann-Klein M. 2006. Neuro Endocrinology Letters 27, 36-39.

Iwegbue AMC, Nwajei EG, Iyoha HE. 2008. Heavy metal residues of chicken meat and grizzard and Turkey meat consumed in Southern Nigeria. Bulgarian Journal of Veterinary Medicine 11, 275-280.

John HH, Jeanne RI. 1994. Food additives, contaminants and natural toxins. 8th Ed. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease, Part II. 1597–8 p.

JOINT FAO/WHO. Beijing, People’s Republic of China. 2000. Report of the 32nd Session of the Codex Committee on Food Additives and Contaminants.

Jukna C, Juckna V, Siugzdaite J. 2006. Determination of heavy metals in viscera and muscles of cattle. Bulgarian Journal of Veterinary Medicine 9, 35-41.

Khurshid SR, Qureshi HI. 1984. The role of inorganic elements in human body. The Nucleus 21, 3-23.

Kaufmann BD, DiNicola W, McIntosh R. 1981. Comments on dialysis solution, composition, antibiotic transport, poisoning, and novel uses of peritoneal dialysis. Karl, D. and M. D. Nolph, editors. Peritoneal Dialysis. Netherlands: Springer, 240 – 274 p.

Khalil S. 2010. Assessment of Toxic Metals in Meat of Peshawar.

Khan FU, Iqbal Z, Zaidi HSS. 1990. Health hazard of trace elements in the human body. Science Technology and Development 9, 30-34.

Koréneková B, Skalická M, Nad P. 2002. Concentration of some heavy metals in cattle reared in the vicinity of metallurgical industry. Veterinary Archives 72, 259-267.

Kosanovic M, Jokanovic M, Jevremovic M, Dobric S, Bokonjic D. 2002. Maternal and fetal cadmium and selenium status in normotensive and hypertensive pregnancy. Biological Trace Elements Research 89, 97–103.

Lafuente A, Gonza´lez-Carracedo A, Esquifino AI. 2004. Differential effects of cadmium on blood lymphocyte subsets. Biometals 17, 451–456.

Lamb DJ, Avades TY, Ferns GA. 2001. Biphasic modulation of atherosclerosis induced by graded dietary copper supplementation in the cholesterol-fed rabbit. International Journal of Experimental Pathology 82, 287–294.

Lawal AO, Mohammed SS, Damisa D. 2006. Assessment of levels of copper, cadmium, and lead in secretion of mammary gland of cows grazed in open fields. Scientific World Journal 1, 7-10.

Liu X, Song Q, Tang Y, Li W, Xu J, Wu J, Wang F, Brookes CP. 2013. Human health risk assessment of heavy metals in soil–vegetable system: A multi-medium analysis. Science of the Total Environment 463, 530- 540.

Mahmood T, Qureshi ZI, Nadeem SM, Khan AM. 2008. Hexavalent chromium toxicity in pituitary and thyroid glands. Pakistan Journal of Zoology 40, 91 – 97.

Mahmud T, Rehman R, Ali S, Anwar J, Abbas A, Farooq M, Ali A. 2011. Estimation of chromium (VI) in various body parts of local chicken. Journal of Chemical Society of Pakistan 33, 339 -342.

Mariam I, Iqbal S, Nagra AS. 2004. Distribution of some trace and macrominerals in beef, mutton and poultry. International Journal of Agricultural Biology 6, 814-820.

Mates MJ, Segura AJ, Alonso FJ, Marquez J. 2010. Roles of dioxins and heavy metals in cancer and neurological diseases using ROS-mediated mechanisms. Free Radical Biology and Medicine 49, 1328-1341.

Ministry of Finance. Islamabad, Pakistan. 2015. Pakistan Economic Survey.

Miranda M, Lopez-Alonso M, Castillo C, Hernadez J, Benedito JL. 2005. Effect of Moderate pollution on toxic and trace metal levels in calves from a polluted area of Northern Spain. Environmental International 31, 543-548.

Neiger RD, Osweiler GD. 1989. Effect of subacute low level dietary sodium arsenite on dogs. Fundamental and Applied Toxicology 13, 439-451.

NRC, National Research Council. 1994. 9th revised Ed. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

Oforka NC, Osuji LC, Onwuachu UI. 2012. Estimation of dietary intake of cadmium, lead, mangnese, zinc, nickle due to consumption of chicken meat by inhabitants of Port- Harcourt Metropolis, Nigeria. Archives of Applied Science Research 4, 675 – 684.

Osuji LC, Onojake CM. 2004. Trace heavy metals associated with crude oil: A Case study of Ebocha-8 oil-spill-polluted site in Niger Delta, Nigeria. Chemistry and Biodiversity 1, 1708-1715.

Papamikolaou G, Pantopoulos K. 2005. Iron metabolism and toxicity. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 202, 199 – 211.

Póti P, Pajor F, Bodnár Á, Abai-Hamar E, Bárdos L. 2010. Lead and cadmium content of meat and different organs of grazing ewes and lambs. Magyar Állatorvosok Lapja 132, 667-672.

Poultry Research Institute; Livestock and Dairy  Development  Department,  Rawalpindi, Pakistan. 2014. Punjab Poultry Sector’s Annual Statistical Report.

Qazi IJ, Niaz S, Hussain A. 2010. Biological Chromium Reduction at Low pH: A Preliminary Study. Punjab University Journal of Zoology 25, 49-56.

Reddy ATV, Yellamma K. 2006. Cadmium chloride induced alteration in the detoxification enzymes of rat liver and kidney. Pollution Research 15, 371-373.

Rice DC. 1996. Evidence for delayed neurotoxicity produced by methyl mercury. Neurotoxicology 17, 583–96.

Roy P, Saha A. 2002. Metabolism and Toxicity of Arsenic: A human carcinogen. Current Science 82, 38 – 45.

Rubio C, Gonza´lez-Iglesias T, Revert C, Reguera JI, Gutie´rrez AJ, Hardisson A. 2005. Lead dietary intake in a Spanish population (CanaryIslands). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 53, 6543–6549.

Rudy M. 2009. The analysis of correlations between the age and the level of bioaccumulation of heavy metals in tissues and the chemical composition of sheep meat from the region in SE Poland. Food and Chemical Toxicology 47, 1117-1122.

Sabir SM, Khan WS, Hayat I. 2003. Effect of environmental pollution on quality of meat in district Bagh, Azad Kashmir. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 2, 98-101.

Shah QA, Kazi GT, Baig AJ, Afridi IH, Kandhro AG, Arain BM, Kolachi FN, Wadhwa KS. 2010. Total mercury determination in different tissues of broiler chicken by using cloud point extraction and cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry. Food and Chemical Toxicology 48, 65-69.

Sharma KR, Agrawal M, Marshal MF. 2009. Heavy metals in vegetables collected from production and market sites of a tropical urban area of India. Food and Chemical Toxicology 47, 583-591.

Shakir L, Ejaz S, Ashraf M, Qureshi AN, Anjum AA, Lltaf M, Javeed A. 2012. Ecotoxicological risks associated with tannery effluent wastewater. Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology 34, 180-191.

Sharif L, Massadeh A, Dalal’eh R, Hassan M. 2005. Copper and mercury levels in Local Jordanian and Imported Sheep meat and organs. Bulgarian Journal of Veterinary Medicine 8, 255-265.

Sharifian M, Khalili M, Abbasi V, Hedayati A. 2013. Sub-lethal effects of copper toxicity on liver lesions of Roach juveniles. Journal of Novell Applied Sciences 2, 119-123.

Skalická M, Koréneková B, Pavel N, Makóová Z. 2002. Cadmium levels in poultry meat. Veterinary Archives 72, 11-17.

Smith KM, Dagleish MP, Abrahams WP. 2010. The intake of lead and associated metals by sheep grazing mining-contaminated floodplain pastures in mid-Wales, UK: II. Metal concentrations in blood and wool. Science of the Total Environment 408, 1035-1042.

Sthanadar AI, Sthanadar AA, Shah M, Ali SP, Yousaf M, Yousafzai MA. 2013. White muscle as a bio-indicator of cadmium (Cd) pollution across Kalpani River Mardan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan. International Journal of Biosciences 3, 105-116.

Sunda PN. 2010. Are we eating chrome chicken. The Socioscan. 2, 69-77.

Szkoda J, Zmudzki J, Nawrocka A, Kmiecik M. 2013. Assessment of toxic elements contamination of game animals in Poland in 2001-2012. Medycyna Weterynaryjna 69, 555-559.

Tabinda AB, Zafar S, Yasar A, Munir S. 2013. Metals concentration in water, fodder, milk, meat, blood, kidney and liver of livestock and associated health impacts by intake of contaminated milk and meat. Pakistan Journal of Zoology 45, 1156-1160.

Tariq RS, Shah HM, Shaheen N, Jaffer M, Khalique A. 2007. Statistical source identification of metals in groundwater exposed to industrial contamination. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 138, 159- 165.

Tariq SR. 2009. Correlation studies on the trace metals levels in effluents in relation to soil and water in proximity of tanneries. PhD thesis, Quaid-e-Azam University, Islamabad.

Tchounwou BP, Clement G, Yedjou, Patlolla KA, Sutton JD. 2012. Heavy Metal Toxicity and the Environment. Molecular, Clinical and Environmental Toxicology, Springer Basel., 133-164 p.

Thomsen- Lund P. 2009. Assessing the Impact of Public–Private Partnerships in the Global South: The Case of the Kasur Tanneries Pollution Control Project. Journal of Business Ethics 90, 55-78.

Union Council. 2001. District Profile Kasur. Available Online. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/kasur.

Waalkes MP, Ward JM, Liu J, Diwan BA. 2003. Transplacental carcinogenicity of inorganic arsenic in the drinking water: induction of hepatic, ovarian, pulmonary, and adrenal tumors in mice. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacy 186, 7-17.

Zahir F, Rizvi JS, Haq KS, Khan HR. 2005. Low dose mercury toxicity and immune health. Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, 1-10.

Zhuang P, Murray B, Mcbride, Hanping X, Ningyu L, Zhian L. 2009. Health risk from heavy metals via consumption of food crops in the vicinity of Dabaoshan mine, South China. Science of Total Environment 407, 1551-1561.


Style Switcher

Select Layout
Chose Color
Chose Pattren
Chose Background