Etiologies of acute respiratory infections in children aged 1 to 59 months in Niger

Paper Details

Research Paper 01/07/2017
Views (337) Download (9)

Etiologies of acute respiratory infections in children aged 1 to 59 months in Niger

Sani Ousmane, Ibrahim D. Dano, Kamaye Moumouni, Soumana Alido, Issa Idi, Jean-Paul. M. Pelat, Jean-Marc Collard
Int. J. Micro. Myco.6( 1), 16-23, July 2017.
Certificate: IJMM 2017 [Generate Certificate]


Respiratory infections remain an important cause of morbidity and mortality in children worldwide. Children aged 1 to 59 months suspect of respiratory infections were enrolled with a view to determine the etiologies of infection and improving care. In total, 767 children were enrolled. The mean age and sex ratio male/female were respectively 13.25 months and 1.3. Children aged ≤12 months and those >12 months were respectively 136/767 (17.7%) and 631/767 (82.3%). The mean hospitalization time was 6.1 days (mini=0, max=20). Of the 767 children, 714 (93.1%) had at least one sign of severe infection detected with 325/714 (42.5%) having a body temperature ≥ 38°C associated. Procalcitonin level was significant in 173/633 children (27.3%) while Binax rapid test was positive in 176/642 (27.4%). The two tests agreed in 54/159children (34.0%). Blood culture was requested for 55/767 (7.2%) children and only 11 were positive with Staphylococcus aureus being the major etiology (63%) isolated. Etiologies detected by PCR from nasopharynx were Streptococcus pneumoniae (39.3%) and respiratory syncytial virus (23.6%) with 86 children co-infected by both pathogens. Other etiologies detected were Staphylococcus aureus (17.9%), Rhinovirus (10.1%), Adenovirus (9.4%), and Parainfluenza virus (7.3%). Sixty percent of children were fully vaccinated with pentavalent vaccine but only 10% received their second dose of PCV13 vaccine. Multiple home visits for post hospitalization health monitoring did not offer better prevention of morbidity and mortality compared to a single visit (P >0.05). A rate of 42.5% severe respiratory infections was detected with Streptococcus pneumoneae and Respiratory Syncytial Virus encountered the most.


Adiku TK, Asmah RH, Rodrigues O, Goka B, Obodai E, Adjei AA, et al. 2015. Aetiology of Acute Lower Respiratory Infections among Children Under Five Years in Accra, Ghana. Pathogens 4(1), 22-33.

Bedford KJ, Sharkey AB. 2014. Local barriers and solutions to improve care-seeking for childhood pneumonia, diarrhoea and malaria in Kenya, Nigeria and Niger: a qualitative study. PLoS One 9(6), e100038.

Bhat RY, Manjunath N. 2013. Correlates of acute lower respiratory tract infections in children under 5 years of age in India. International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease 17(3), 418-22.

Black RE, Morris SS, Bryce J. 2003. Where and why are 10 million children dying every year? Lancet 361(2), 2226-34.

Bryce J, Boschi-Pinto C, Shibuya K, Black RE, Group WHOCHER. 2005. WHO estimates of the causes of death in children. Lancet 365(3), 1147-52.

Cenac A, Djibo A, Chaigneau C, Degbey H, Sueur JM, Orfila J. 2002. [Chlamydia pneumoniae and acute respiratory tract infections in breast-feeding infants: simultaneous mother-child serological study in Niamey (Niger)]. Santé 12(2), 217-21.

Kyu HH, Pinho C, Wagner JA, Brown JC, Bertozzi-Villa A, et al. 2016. Global and National Burden of Diseases and Injuries Among Children and Adolescents Between 1990 and 2013: Findings From the Global Burden of Disease 2013 Study. JAMA Pediatrics 170(3), 267-87.

Lagare A, Mainassara HB, Issaka B, Sidiki A, Tempia S. 2015. Viral and bacterial etiology of severe acute respiratory illness among children<5 years of age without influenza in Niger. BMC Infectious Diseases 15, 515.

Lim Y-W, Steinhoff M, Girosi F, Holtzman D, Campbell H, Boer R, et al. 2006. Reducing the global burden of acute lower respiratory infections in children: the contribution of new diagnostics. Nature 444 Supplement 1, 9-18.

Liu L, Oza S, Hogan D, Perin J, Rudan I, Lawn JE, et al. 2015. Global, regional, and national causes of child mortality in 2000-13, with projections to inform post-2015 priorities: an updated systematic analysis. Lancet 385(6), 430-40.

Noordam AC, Carvajal-Velez L, Sharkey AB, Young M, Cals JW. 2015. Correction: Care Seeking Behaviour for Children With Suspected Pneumonia in Countries in Sub-Saharan Africa With High Pneumonia Mortality. PLoS One 10(4), e0126997.

Ouedraogo Yugbare SO, Ouedraogo R, Nenebi A, Traore B, Congo L, Yonli F, et al. 2016. [Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections in the pediatric teaching hospital Charles de Gaulle of Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso]. Bulletin de la Société de Pathologie Exotique 109(1), 20-5.

Qazi S, Aboubaker S, MacLean R, Fontaine O, Mantel C, Goodman T, et al. 2015. Ending preventable child deaths from pneumonia and diarrhoea by 2025. Development of the integrated Global Action Plan for the Prevention and Control of Pneumonia and Diarrhoea. Archives of Disease in Childhood 100 Supplement 1, S23-8.

Shi T, McLean K, Campbell H, Nair H. 2015. Aetiological role of common respiratory viruses in acute lower respiratory infections in children under five years: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Global Health 5(1), 010408.

Wardlaw T, Salama P, Johansson EW, Mason E. 2006. Pneumonia: the leading killer of children. Lancet (London, England) 368(12),1048-50.

You D, Hug L, Ejdemyr S, Idele P, Hogan D, Mathers C, et al. 2015. Global, regional, and national levels and trends in under-5 mortality between 1990 and 2015, with scenario-based projections to 2030: a systematic analysis by the UN Inter-agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation. Lancet (London, England) 386(13), 2275-86.