Evaluating sociodemographic factors influencing cervical cancer and detection of cervical lesion by screening methods; visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) and Papanicolaou (Pap) smear among Pakistani women

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Research Paper 01/07/2019
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Evaluating sociodemographic factors influencing cervical cancer and detection of cervical lesion by screening methods; visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) and Papanicolaou (Pap) smear among Pakistani women

Amama Rani, Arshad Mumtaz, Syed Sohail Zahoor Zaidi, Ahmareen Khalid Sheikh, Nasira Tasneem, Eijaz Ghani, Shoaib Naiyar Hashmi, Qanita Fahim, Fariha Hasan
Int. J. Biosci.15( 1), 144-154, July 2019.
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Cervical cancer is the most prevalent gynecological malignancy in low to middle-income countries. In Pakistan, cervical cancer ranks as the 3rd leading cause of death in females. The important reason for this higher mortality rate is lack of valuable screening programs. Cancer of the cervix is a preventable disease. The purpose of this study was to determine the socio-demographic factors influencing cervical cancer screening and to assess the role of screening test for early detection of cervical carcinoma in the Pakistani female. Between, January 2013 to December 2014 cervical smears were taken from married females with gynecological problems visiting Pakistan Institute of Medical sciences. Pap smears were also obtained from Armed forces institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi. In the present study, a total of 118 cervical smears were screened using Pap smear test. All patients were also subjected to VIA. The mean age of the female patients was 35.78 ± 9.8 years. There were 42(35.5%) normal Pap smear, 33(27.9%) inflammatory, 11(9.3%) LSIL, 5(4.2%) HSIL and 18(15.2%) abnormal Pap smear. Acetic acid (VIA) was positive in 27/118 (22.8%) patients. Early Pap smear test can be effective in diagnosis of premalignant lesions of cervix. However, visual inspection of the cervix with acetic acid is an effective method for immediate detection of cervical malignancies in low resource country like Pakistan. Nationwide programs should be established to increase knowledge of cervical cancer and its screening to decrease late presentation and rate of mortality.


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