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Evaluation of acute toxicity and heavy metals levels of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Euphorbia hirta, Citrus aurantifolia and Heterotis rotundifolia

Roko Oladélé, Dougnon Victorien, Hounkpatin Armelle, Baba-Moussa Lamine

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Int. J. Biosci.15(3), 110-122, September 2019

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12692/ijb/15.3.110-122


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Euphorbia hirta, Citrus aurantifolia and Heterotis rotundifolia are plants used in traditional Beninese medicine to treat various diseases and the data on their toxicity are almost non-existent. This study was undertaken to evaluate their toxicity. The acute oral toxicity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of these plants was assessed according to OECD guideline 423 with Wistar rats at a single dose of 2000 mg/kg body weight. In addition, the contents of heavy metals such as Lead (Pb), Cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), Arsenic (As), Selenium (Se), Aluminum (Al), Manganese (Mn), Zinc (Zn), Copper (Cu) and Iron (Fe) were determined using the optical emission mass spectrophotometry coupled to induced plasma. Single dose administration of plant extracts did not cause any clinical signs in rats during the 14 days of observation. Moreover, no significant differences (p> 0.05) were observed between the hematological and biochemical parameters of the rats treated with the extracts and those of the normal control rats, whatever the day of levy. The extracts showed no toxicological effects at the administered dose. This result was confirmed by histological examination of the kidneys and liver of rats which showed no architectural deformation. Otherwise, the heavy metal content sought is below the tolerable level according to WHO/FAO standards.  It is therefore established that, Euphorbia hirta, Citrus aurantifolia and Heterotis rotundifolia do not exhibit toxicity at the studied dose (2000 mg/kg of b.w.) and do not present any risk of toxicity to the heavy metals sought.


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Evaluation of acute toxicity and heavy metals levels of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Euphorbia hirta, Citrus aurantifolia and Heterotis rotundifolia

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