Int. J. Biosci.12(4), 127-133, April 2018
This study was conducted to investigate the potentials of marine invertebrates as sources of bioactive compounds. Four marine invertebrates were collected off Agusan del Norte, Philippines, and were taxonomically identified as Lobophytum baratum, Sarcophyton ehrenbergi, Isis sp., and Demospongia sp. Polar and nonpolar extracts, prepared by extraction of the samples with 50:50 ethanol-water and 50:50 ethylactetate-methanol, respectively, were tested for their antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. None of the extracts showed strong antioxidant activity comparable to the standard ascorbic acid in the antioxidant screening using the 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free-radical scavenging method. However, the polar extract of the soft coral Sarcophyton ehrenbergi showed high Ascorbic Acid Equivalents (AAE) as well as high Butylated Hydroxytoluene Equivalents (BHTE) values in the total antioxidant assay conducted using the Phosphomolybdenum method. Among the marine invertebrate extracts subjected to antimicrobial assay, the nonpolar extract of the soft coral Lobophytum baratum was shown to be the most active against Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli with zones of inhibition of 21.5 ± 2.1 mm and 12.7 ± 0.9 mm, respectively. However, the extracts failed to show any antifungal activity against the test organisms Sacaromyce scerevisiae and Aspergillus niger. The results indicated the possibility of obtaining antioxidant and antibacterial compounds from S. enrenbergi and L. baratum, respectively.
Amer SK, Morsy EM. 2015. Screening of antimicrobial activity of some marine invertebrate extracts collected from Tabuk region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research 7(10), 564-568.
Bianco EV, Krug JL, Zimath PL, Kroger A, Paganelli CJ, Boeder AM, dos Santosa L, Tenfena A, Ribeiro SM, Kuroshima KN, Albertona MD, de Cordovaa CMM, Rebelo RA. 2015. Antimicrobial (including antimollicutes), antioxidant and anticholinesterase activities of Brazilian and Spanish marine organisms – evaluation of extracts and pure compounds. Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia 25(6). http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bjp.2015.07.018
Driscoll AJ, Bhat N, Karron RA, O’Brien KL, Murdoch DR. 2012. Disk diffusion bioassays for the detection of antibiotic activity in body fluids: Application for the pneumonia etiology research for child health project. A review of disk diffusion bioassays 159-164. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/cir1061
Edrada A, Wray V, Handayani D, Schupp P, Balbin-Oliveros M, Proksch P. 2000. Structure-activity relationships of bioactive metabolites from some indopacific marine invertebrates. Elsevier Science B.V. Atta-ur-Rahman (Ed.) Studies in Natural Products Chemistry21, 251.
Elkhatee A, El-Beih AA, Gamal-Eldeen AM, Al hammady MA, Ohta S, Paré PW Hegazy MEF. 2014. New Terpenes from the Egyptian Soft Coral Sarcophyton ehrenbergi. Marine Drugs 12(4), 1977–1986. http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/md12041977
Ferreira EG, Wilke DV, Jimenez PC, Portela TA, Silveira ER, Hajdu E, Pessoa C, de Moraes MO, Costa-Lotufo LV. 2007. Cytotoxic activity of hydroethanolic extracts of sponges (Porifera) collected at Pedra da Risca do Meio Marine State Park, Ceará State, Brazil, Porifera Research: Biodiversity, Innovation and Sustainability, 313-318.
Gordaliza M. 2010. Cytotoxic terpene quinones from marine sponges. Marine Drugs, 2849-2870. http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/md8122849
Guevara B. 2005. A Guidebook to Plant Screening: Phytochemical and Biological. Philippines: UST Publishing House, 57, 64-71.
Jeng MS, Huang HD, Dai CF, Hsiao YC, Benayahu Y. 2011. Sclerite calcification and reef-building in the fleshy octocoral genus Sinularia (Octocorallia: Alcyonacea). Springer-Verlag, 925-932. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00338-011-0765-z
Leal MC, Puga J, Serodio J, Gomes NCM, Calado R. 2012. Trends in the discovery of new marine natural products from invertebrates over the last two decades – where and what are we bioprospecting?. PLoS ONE, 7, e30580, 1-15. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0030580
Lee KG, Shibamoto T. 2001. Antioxidant property of aroma extract isolated from clove buds [Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. Et. Perry]. Food Chemistry 74, 443-448. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(01)00161-3
Maia LF, Fleury BG, Lages BG, Creed JC, Oliveira FC. 2014. Nondestructive raman spectroscopy analysis: new strategies for identifying natural products of ecological significance from corals. Studies in Natural Products Chemistry 43, 313-318.
Meyer BN, Ferrigni NR, Putnam JE, Jacobsen LB, Nichols DE, McLaughlin JL. 1982. Brine shrimp: a convenient general bioassay for active plant conctituents. Journal of medicinal Plant Research. 45, 31-34. http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-2007-971236
Nakao Y, Fusetani N. 2010. Marine invertebrates: Sponges. Comprehensive Natural Products II: Chemistry and Biology. Elsevier Ltd., 327-362 p.
Prieto P, Pineda M, Aguilar M. 1999. Spectrophotometric quantitation of antioxidant capacity through the formation of a phosphomolybdenum complex: specific application to the determination of Vitamin E1. Analytical Biochemistry 269, 337–341. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/abio.1999.4019
Putra MY, Murniasih T, Swasono RT, Wibowo JT, Saputri AN, Widhiana MR, Arlyza IS. 2016. Secondary metabolites and their biological activities in Indonesian soft coral of the genus Lobophytum. Asia Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine 6(11), 909-913. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apjtb.2016.08.011
Shahbudin S, Deny S, Zakirun AMT, Haziyamin TAH, Akbar JB, Taher M. 2011. Antioxidant properties of soft corals Dendronephthya sp. International Journal of Pharmacology 7(2), 263-267. http://dx.doi.org/10.3923/ijp.2011.263.267
Shekhar TC, Anju G. 2014. Antioxidant activity by dpph radical scavenging method of Ageratum conyzoides Linn. Leaves. American Journal of Ethnomedicine 1(4), 244-249.
Wang SK, Hsieh MK, Duh CY. 2013. New Diterpenoids from Soft Coral Sarcophyton ehrenbergi. Marine Drugs 11(11), 4318–4327. http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/md11114318
Zhao M, Yin J, Jiang W, Ma M, Lei X, Xiang Z, Dong J, Huang K, Yan P. 2013. Cytotoxic and antibacterial cembranoids from a South China Sea soft coral, Lobophytum sp. Marine Drugs 11(4),1162-72. http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/md11041162
Zubair MS, Al-Footy KO, Ayyad SEN, Al-Lihaibi SS, Alarif WM. 2015. A review of steroids from Sarcophyton species. Natural Products Research 30(8), 869-879. https://doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2015.1079187