Evaluation of the toxic and physiological activities of Precocene I (Anti-juvenile hormone agent) against Spodoptera littoralis Boisd. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

Paper Details

Research Paper 01/07/2018
Views (356) Download (13)

Evaluation of the toxic and physiological activities of Precocene I (Anti-juvenile hormone agent) against Spodoptera littoralis Boisd. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

Khalid Hamadah, Karem Ghoneim
Int. J. Biosci.13( 1), 86-104, July 2018.
Certificate: IJB 2018 [Generate Certificate]


The cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis is a destructive pest of cotton and various crops all over the year in Egypt as well as in some countries. Objective of the present study was to assess the effects of Precocene I (PI) on survival, growth, development and metamorphosis of this pest. Five doses: 150, 120, 90, 30 and 15 µg/larva had been topically applied (once) onto 1-day old penultimate instar larvae or 1-day old last instar larvae. Various mortality percentages were recorded among the larvae, pupae and adults. LD50 values were calculated in 70.48 and 234.96 µg/larva, after treatment of 5th and 6th larval instars, respectively. PI exerted a diverse action on the maximal body weight (max. wt) of treated larvae, depending on the dose. The larval growth was considerably inhibited. The larval duration was conspicuously shortened while the pupal duration was slightly or significantly prolonged, depending on the dose. Regardless the larval instar under treatment, the developmental rate of pupae was generally regressed. PI failed to induce the precocious pupation, regardless the applied dose. PI exerted a strong inhibitory action on the pupation, regardless the larval instar under treatment. The adult emergence was partially blocked. Some morphologically abnormal pupae were produced after treatment of 6th instar larvae with the higher two doses.


Abdullah MAR. 2009. Identification of the biological active compounds of two natural extracts for the control of the red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Egyptian Academic Journal of Biological Sciences 2(2), 35-44.

Adham FK, Rashad EM, Shoukry IF, Nasr EE. 2009. Host plants shifting affects the biology and biochemistry of Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Journal of Biological Sciences 2(1), 63-71.

Aliabadi FP, Sahragard A, Ghadamyari M. 2016. Lethal and sublethal effects of a chitin synthesis inhibitor, lufenuron, against Glyphodes pyloalis Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Journal of Crop Protection 5(2), 203‐214. http://dx.doi.org/10.18869/modares.jcp.5.2.203

Al-Sharook Z, Balan K, Jiang Y, Rembold H. 1991. Insect growth inhibitors from two tropical Meliaceae: Effects of crude seed extracts on mosquito larvae. Journal of Applied Entomology 111, 425-430. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0418.1991.tb00344.x

Amiri A, Bandani AR, Ravan S. 2010. Effect of an anti-juvenile hormone agent (Precocene I) on sunn pest, Eurygaster integriceps (Hemiptera: Scutelleridae) development and reproduction. African Journal of Biotechnology 9(36), 5859-5868.

Amsalem E, Malka O, Grozinger C, Hefetz A. 2014a. Exploring the role of juvenile hormone and vitellogenin in reproduction and social behavior in bumble bees. BMC Evolutionary Biology 14, 1-13. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2148-14-45

Amsalem E, Teal P, Grozinger CM, Hefetz A. 2014b. Precocene-I inhibits juvenile hormone biosynthesis, ovarian activation, aggression and alters sterility signal production in bumble bee (Bombus terrestris) workers. The Journal of Experimental Biology 217, 3178-3185. http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/jeb.107250

Asano S, Kuwano E, Eto M. 1984. Anti-juvenile hormone activity of 1-citronellyl-5-phenylimidazole in the 3rd instar silkworm, Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera :Bombycidae). Applied Entomology and Zoology 19(2), 212-220. https://doi.org/10.1303/aez.19.212

Attathom T. 2002. Biotechnology for insect pest control.  Proceedings of a Satellite Forum: “Sustainable Agricultural System in Asia”. Nagoya, Japan, 73-84 p.

Aydin MH, Gurkan MO. 2006. The efficacy of spinosad on different strains of S. littoralis (Boisduval) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Turkish Journal of Biology 30, 5-9.

Bakr RFA, El-barky NM, Abd Elaziz MF, Awad MH, Abd El-Halim HME. 2010. Effect of Chitin synthesis inhibitors (flufenoxuron) on some biological and biochemical aspects of the cotton leafworm Spodoptera littoralis Bosid. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Egyptian Academic Journal Biological Sciences 2(2), 43-56.

Balamani E, Nair VSK. 1989.  Effects of anti-juvenile hormone agents and a juvenile hormone analog on neck-ligated post-feeding last instar larvae of Spodoptera mauritia Boisd. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). International Journal of Tropical Insect Science 10(5), 583-589. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1742758400021706

Banerjee S, Kalena GP, Banerji A, Singh AP. 2008. New synthetic precocenoids as potential insect control agents. Journal of Environmental Biology 29(6), 951- 957.

Banerji A, Goomer NC. 1984. Synthesis of naturally occurring 6-oxygentaed-2, 2-dimethyl chromenes.  Indian Journal of Chemistry 23B, 885-886.

Banerji A, Kalena GP. 1989. Heterocycles from diacetyl phenols: Synthesis of benzodipyrans, acetyl chromenes of pyrano-(1,2) benzisoxazoles. Heterocycle 28, 711-718.

Barnby MA, Klocke JA. 1990. Effects of azadirachtin on levels of ecdysteroids and prothoracicotropic hormone-like activity in Heliothis virescens (Fabr.) larvae. Journal of Insect Physiology 36, 125-131. https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-1910(90)90183-G

Bede JC, Teal PE, Goodman WG, Tobe SS. 2001. Biosynthetic pathway of insect juvenile hormone III in cell suspension cultures of the sedge Cyperus iria. Plant Physiology 127(2), 584-593. http://dx.doi.org/10.1104/pp.010264.

Bowers WS. 1976. Discovery of insect anti-allatotropins. In: “The Juvenile Hormones” (Gilbert LI. Ed.). New York, NY: Plenum Press, 394-408 p.

Bowers WS. 1982. Toxicology of the precocenes. In: “Insecticide Mode of Action”(Coats JR. ed.). New York, Academic Press, 403-427 p.

Bowers WS, Aldrich JR. 1980. In vivo inactivation of denervated corpora allata by precocene II in the bug Oncopeltus fasciatus. Experientia 36, 362-364. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01952328

Burks CS, Evans LD, Kim Y, Krafsur ES. 1992. Effects of Precocene and methoprene application in young-adult Musca autumnalis. Physiological Entomology 17, 115-120. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3032.1992.tb01187.x

Burt ME, Kuhr RJ, Bowers WS. 1978. Metabolism of precocene II in the cabbage looper and European corn-borer. Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology 9, 300-303. https://doi.org/10.1016/0048-3575(78)90010-X

Casida JE, Quistad GB. 1998. Golden age of insecticide research: past, present, or future. Annual Review of Entomology 43, 1-16. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.ento.43.1.1

Chen YR, Chen SC, Chang HW, Sun G, Kou R. 2005a. Effect of exogenous juvenile hormone III and precocene II on agonistic behavior and the Corpora allata in vitro activity in the male lobster cockroach Nauphoeta cinerea (Dictyoptera: Blaberidae, Oxyhaloinae). Zoological Studies 44, 409-416.

Chen Z, Madden RD, Dillwith JW.2005b. Effect of precocene II on fatty acid metabolism in the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, under cold stress. Journal of Insect Physiology 51(4), 411-416.

Chenevert R, Perron JM, Paquin RL, Robitaille M, Wang YK. 1980. Activity of precocene analogues on Locusta migratoria (Forsk.). Expeientia 36, 379-380.

Chowański S, Kudlewska M, Marciniak P, Rosiński G. 2014. Synthetic Insecticides- is there an Alternative? Polish Journal Environmental Studies 23(2), 291-302.

Costa LG, Giordano G, Guizzetti M, Vitalone A. 2008. Neurotoxicity of pesticides: A brief review. Frontiers in BioScience 13, 1240-1249.

Damalas CA, Eleftherohorinos IG. 2011. Pesticide exposure, safety issues, and risk assessment indicators. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 8(5), 1402-1419.

Darvas B, Kuwano E, Eto M, Tag al-din MH, Timar T. 1990. Effects of some anti-juvenile hormone agents (Precocenes-2, J-2710, KK-110) on post embryonic development of Neobellieria bullata. Agricultural and Biological Chemistry 54(11), 3045-3047. https://doi.org/10.1080/00021369.1990.10870450

Davies TGE, Field LM, Usherwood PNR, Williamson MS. 2007. DDT, pyrethrins and insect sodium channels. International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Life 59, 151-162. DOI: 10.1080/15216540701352042

Dempster C. 1957. The population dynamic of Moraccan locust, Dociostarus marcocanus in Cyprus. Anti Locust Bull., 27 p.

Denlinger DL, Yocum GD, Rinehart JP. 2012. Hormonal control of diapause. In: “Insect Endocrinology” (Lawrence IG. ed.). Academic Press, San Diego, CA, USA.430-463 p.

Djeghader NEH, Aïssaoui L, Amira K, Boudjelida H. 2014. Impact of a chitin synthesis inhibitor, Novaluron, on the development and the reproductive performance of mosquito Culex pipiens.  World Applied Sciences Journal 29(7), 954-960. http://dx.doi.org/10.5829/idosi.wasj.2014.29.07.82190

Edwards JP, Bergot BJ, Staal GB. 1983. Effects of three compounds with anti-juvenile hormone activity and a juvenile hormone analogue on endogenous juvenile hormone levels in the tobacco horn worm, Manduca sexta.  Journal of Insect Physiology 29(1), 83-89. https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-1910(83)90109-9

Eid MA, Salem MS, El-Ibrashy MT, Abdel-Hamid M. 1982.Effects of precocene II, Cycloheximide and C16-JH on the growth rate and adult morphometrics of Schistocerca gregaria Forsk. Bulletin of Entomological Society of Egypt (Economic Series) 13, 95-105.

El-Ibrahsy MT. 1971.The effect of allatectomy upon reproduction and development of the cotton 1eaf-worm Spodoptera littoralis. Journal of Insect Physiology 17, 1783-1790. https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-1910(71)90075-8

El-Ibrashy MT. 1982. Juvenile hormone mimics in retrospect and antagonists in prospect.  Journal of Applied Entomology 94, 217-236. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0418.1982.tb02569.x

El-Ibrashy MT, Aref NB. 1985. Effects of certain juvenoids on growth and morphogenesis in Spodoptera littoralis Boisduval. Journal of plant protection in the tropics 2(2), 105-116.

El-Khawas MAM, Abd El-Gawad HAS. 2002. The efficiency of two plant extracts (Fenugreek and Lupine) and commercial biofungicide (Biofly) on the cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae as a new approach of control. Journal of Egyptian German Society of Zoology 37, 39-57.

Farag AI, Varjas L. 1983. Precocious metamorphosis and moulting deficiencies induced by an anti-JH compound FMev in the fall webworm, Hyphantria cunea. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 34, 65-70. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1570-7458.1983.tb03291.x

Farazmand H, Chaika EY. 2008. Effects of Precocene-I and II on the development of Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Col.: Chrysomelidae). Applied Entomology and Phytopathology 76(1), 27-43.

Finney DJ. 1971. Probit analysis. 3rd ed. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 318 p.

Flatt T, Heyland A, Rus F, Porpiglia E, Sherlock C, Yamamoto R, Garbuzov A, Palli SR, Tatar M, Silverman N. 2008. Hormonal regulation of the humoral innate immune response in Drosophila melanogaster. Journal of Experimental Biology 211, 2712-2724. http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/jeb.014878

Gäde G, Goldsworthy GJ. 2003. Insect peptide hormones: a selective review of their physiology and potential application for pest control. Pest Management Science 59(10), 1063-1075. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ps.755

Garcera MD, Ibanez P, Martinez R, Cunat P. 1991. Variations induced by juvenile hormone and precocene II in the metabolic rate of 3 species of insects. Revista Espanola de Fisiologia. 47, 31-36.

Gaur R, Kumar K. 2009.Effect of precocene on morphogenesis in housefly, Musca domestica Linn. Entomon 34, 107-110.

Gaur R, Kumar K. 2010.Insect growth-regulating effects of Withania somnifera in a polyphagous pest, Spodoptera litura. Phytoparasitica 38(3), 237–241. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12600-010-0092-x

Ghoneim KS. 1985. Physiological studies on endocrine and reproductive systems of the cotton leafworm Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Ph.D. Thesis, Fac. of Sci., Al-Azhar Univ., Cairo, Egypt.

Ghoneim K, Basiouny A. 2017. Insecticidal and antijuvenile hormone activities of Precocene II against the grasshopper Euprepocnemis plorans plorans (Charp.) (Orthoptera: Acrididae). International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development 1(6), 510-524.

Ghoneim KS, Mohamed HA, Bream AS. 2000. Efficacy of the neem seed extract, Neemazal, on growth and development of the Egyptian cotton leafworrn, Spodoptera littoralis Boisd. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Journal of Egyptian German Society of Zoology 33, 161-179.

Ghoneim K, Tanani M, Hamadah Kh, Basiouny A, Waheeb H. 2015. Bioefficacy of Novaluron, a chitin synthesis inhibitor, on survival and development of Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Journal of Advances in Zoology 1(1),24-35.

Ghoneim K, Hassan HA, Tanani MA, Bakr NA. 2017a. Toxic and disruptive effects of Novaluron, a chitin synthesis inhibitor, on development of the pink bollworm Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). International Journal of Entomology Research 2(2), 36-47.

Ghoneim K, Hamadah Kh, Mansour AN, Abo Elsoud AA. 2017b. Toxicity and disruptive impacts of Novaluron, a chitin synthesis inhibitor, on development and metamorphosis of the olive leaf moth Palpita unionalis (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). International Journal of Trend in Research and Development 4(3), 184-193.

Ghosh A, Chowdhury N, Chandra G. 2012. Plant extracts as potential mosquito larvicides. The Indian Journal of Medical Research 135, 581-598.

Gilbert LI, Granger NA, Roe RM. 2000. The juvenile hormones: historical facts and speculations on future research directions. Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 30, 617-644. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0965-1748(00)00034-5

Gillott C. 2005. Insects and humans. In: “Entomology” (Gillott C. Ed.). Third Edition.Springer, Dordrecht, 725-782 p.

Haunerland NH, Bowers WS. 1985. Comparative studies on pharmacokinetics and metabolism of the anti-juvenile hormone precocene II. Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology 2, 55-63. https://doi.org/10.1002/arch.940020106

Hosny MM, Topper CP, Moawad GG, El-Saadany GB.1986, Economic damage thresholds of Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on cotton in Egypt. Crop Protection 5, 100-104. https://doi.org/10.1016/0261-2194(86)90088-8

Hussain A. 2012. The effect of non-host plant volatiles on the reproductive behaviour of the Egyptian cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis. M.Sc. Thesis, Swedish Univ. Agric. Sci. 140 p.

Ishaaya I, Yablonski S, Horowitz AR. 1995. Comparative toxicity of two ecdysteroid agonists, RH-2485 and RH-5992, on susceptible and pyrethroid-resistant strains of the Egyptian cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis.Phytoparasitica 23,139-145. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02980973

Islam MS. 1995.Endocrine manipulation in crowd-reared desert locust Schistocerca gregaria (Forskal). II. Effects of Precocene on mortality and reproductive parameters. Bangladesh Journal of Zoology 23, 199-208.

Isman MB, Yan JY, Proksch P. 1986. Toxicity of natural chromene derivatives to a grasshopper. Naturwissenschaften 73, 500-501. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00367198

Josephrajkumar A, Subrahmanyam B, Srinivasan S. 1999. Plumbagin and azadirachtin deplete haemolymph ecdysteroid levels and alter the activity profiles of two lysosomal enzymes in the fat body of Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). European Journal of Entomology 96, 347-353.

Kadono-Okuda K, Kuwano E, Eto M, Yamashita O. 1987. Inhibitory action of an imidazole compound on ecdysone synthesis in prothoracic glands of the silkworm, Bombyx mori. Development, Growth and Differentiation 29, 527-533. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1440-169X.1987.00527.x

Khafagi WE, Hegazi EM. 2001. Effects of juvenile hormones I & II and precocenes I & II on the immune response of Spodoptera littoralis larvae to supernumerary larvae of the solitary parasitoid, Microplitis rufiventris Kok. Journal of Insect Physiology 47, 1249-1259. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0022-1910(01)00110-X

Khan IA, Kumar K. 2000. Precocene II acts as insect growth regulator in polyphagous pest, Pericallia ricini F. (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae). The Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, India 70(B), 279-285.

Khan IA, Kumar K. 2005. Effect of precocene II on imaginal differentiation in flesh fly, Sarcophaga ruficornis F. (Diptera: Sarcophagidae). Entomon 30, 187-191.

Kiss I, Fodor A, Timar T, Hosztafi S, Sebok P, Torok T, Viragh E, Berenyi M. 1988. Biological activity of precocene analogues on Locusta migratoria. Experientia 44, 790-792.

Kiuchi M, Kimura K, Akai H. 1985. Induction of trimolters from a tetramolter strain of Bombyx mori by anti-juvenoid treatment. Journal of Sericultural Science of Japan 54(1), 77-81. https://doi.org/10.11416/kontyushigen1930.54.77

Kozhanova NI, Nemec V. 1991. Comparison of the effects of hydroprene and precocene II on oogenesis in the mealworm, Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae). Acta entomologica Bohemoslovaca. 88, 281-285.

Kuwano E, Eto M. 1983. Terpenoid imidazoles: New anti-juvenile hormones and insecticidal compounds. Proc. 10th Int. Congr. Plant Prot., Brighton 1, 278.

Kuwano E, Takeya T, Eto M. 1983. Terpenoid imidazoles: new antijuvenile hormones. Agricultural and Biological Chemistry 47, 921-923. https://doi.org/10.1271/bbb1961.47.921

Kuwano E, Tanaka Y, Kikuchi M, Eto M. 1988. Effects of anti-juvenile hormones and related compounds on development in the larvae of Bombyx mori. Journal of Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu Univ. 33(1, 2), 17-28.

Lange AB, Phillips DR, Loughton BG. 1983.The effects of precocene II on early adult development in male Locusta. J. Insect Physiology 29(1), 73-81.https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-1910(83)90108-7

Li Y-M, Kai Z-P, Huang J, Tobe SS. 2017. Lepidopteran HMG-CoA reductase is a potential selective target for pest control.  Peer J., 5, e2881. https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.2881

Linton YM, Nisbet AJ, Mordue (Luntz) AJ. 1997. The effect of azadirachtin on the testes of the desert locust Schistocerca gregaria (Forskal). Journal of Insect Physiology 43, 1077-1084. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-1910(97)00060-7

Liu XC, Liu ZL. 2014. Evaluation of larvicidal activity of the essential oil of Ageratum conyzoides L. aerial parts and its major constituents against Aedes albopictus. Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies.2(4), 345-350.

Lu XN, Liu XC, Liu QZ, Liu ZL. 2014. Isolation of insecticidal constituents from the essential oil of Ageratum houstonianum Mill. against Liposcelis bostrychophila. Journal of Chemistry, Article ID 645687, 6 p. http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/645687

Magd El-Din S, El-Gengaihi SE. 2000. Joint action of some botanical extracts against the Egyptian cotton leafworm Spodoptera littoralis Bosid. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Egyptian Journal of Biological Pest Control 10(1), 51-56.

Mahmoudvand M, Abbasipour H, Sheikhi Garjan A, Bandani AR. 2012. Decrease in pupation and adult emergence of Plutella xylostella (L.) treated with hexaflumuron. Chilean Journal of Agricultural Research 72(2), 206-211. http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S071858392012000200007.

Mathai S, Nair VSK. 1983. Effects of precocene II on last instar larvae of Spodoptera mauritia (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Current Science 52, 376-377.

Mathai S, Nair VSK. 1984. Morphogenetic effects of precocene II on the larval stages of Spodoptera mauritia Boisd. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). In: Proceedings of Fifth All India Symposium on Developmental Biology (Agarwal SK, Goel SC. Eds.) 59-66 p.

Miles M, Lysandrou M. 2002. Evidence for negative cross resistance to insecticides in field collected Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.) from Lebanon in laboratory bioassays. Mededelingen (Rijksuniversiteit te Gent. Fakulteit van de Landbouwkundige en Toegepaste Biologische Wetenschappen), 67, 665.

Mitsuoka T, Takita M, Kanke E, Kawasaki H. 2001. Ecdysteroid titer, responsiveness of prothoracic gland to prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH), and PTTH release of the recessive trimolter strain of Bombyx mori in extra-ecdysed larvae by JHA and 20E application. Zoological Science, Japan 18(2), 235-240. https://doi.org/10.2108/zsj.18.235

Moroney MJ. 1956. Facts from figures. (3rded.). Penguin Books Ltd., Harmondsworth, Middlesex, 228 p.

Mosallanejad H, Smagghe G. 2009. Biochemical mechanisms of methoxyfenozide resistance in the cotton leafworm Spodoptera littoralis. Pest Management Science 65, 732-736. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ps.1753

Moya P, Castillo M, Primo-Yufera E, Couillaud F, Martinez-Manez R, Garcera MD, Miranda HA, Primo J, Martinez-Pardo R. 1997. Brevioxime: a new juvenile hormone biosynthesis inhibitor isolated from Penicillium brevicompactum. Journal of Organic Chemistry 62, 8544-8545. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jo970397y

Muraleedharan D, Varghese A, Abraham G, Mathews RA. 1986. Effect of precocene-II on endocrines, feeding and digestion in the semilooper caterpillar, Achoea Janata. In: “Insect Neurochemistry and Neurophysiology”, Publisher: Springer, 307-314 p.

Nandi PS, Chakravarty K. 2011. Juvenoids and anti-Juvenoids as third generation pesticide to control lepidopteran field crop pests. Indian Streams Research Journal 1(6), 15 p. http://dx.doi.org/10.9780/22307850

Nasiruddin M, Mordue (Luntz) AJ. 1994. The protection of barley seedlings from attack by Schistocerca gregaria using azadirachtin and related analogues. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 70, 247-252. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1570-7458.1994.tb00753.x

Nassar MM, Hafez ST, Farrag AM, Abahussain MO. 1999.  Efficacy of BaySir-8514 and precocene II against the grey flesh fly Parasarcophaga dux (Thomson) (Diptera: Sarcophagidae). Journal of the Egyptian Society of Parasitology 29(3), 697-707.

Osman KSA. 1988.  Effect of precocene-3 on the hormonal regulation of oogenesis and larval mortality in Aiolopus thalassinus (Fabr.) (Saltatoria: Acrididae). Mitteilungen der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Allgemeine und Angewandte Entomologie 6, 464-487.

Osman EE, Rarwash I, El- Samadisi MM. 1984. Effect of the anti-moulting agent “Dimilin” on the blood picture and cuticle formation in Spodopterea littoralis (Boisd.) larvae. Bulletin of Entomological Society of Egypt (Economic Series) 14, 3-46.

Proksch P, Proksch M, Towers GHN, Rodriguez E. 1983. Phototoxic and insecticidal activities of chromenes and benzofurans from Encelia. Journal of Natural Products 46, 331-334. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/np50027a006

Raslan SAA. 2002. Preliminary report on initial and residual mortality of the natural product, spinosad for controlling cotton leaf worm egg masses. In: 2002 Cotton Season at Sharkia Governorate, Egypt. 2nd International Conference, Plant Protection Research Institute, Cairo, Egypt, 21-24 December 1, 635-637.

Relyea RA. 2009. A cocktail of contaminants: how mixtures of pesticides at low concentrations affect aquatic communities. Oecologia 159, 363-376. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00442-008-1213-9

Retnakaran A, Granett J, Ennis T. 1985. Insect growth regulators. In: “Comprehensive Insect Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology” (Kerkut, G.A., Gilbert, L.I., eds.), vol. 12, pp: 529–601. Pergamon, Oxford.

Richard AG. 1957. Cumulative effects of optimum and suboptimum temperatures on insect development. In: “Influence of Temperature on Biological Systems” (Johnson FH. ed.). Ronald Press Comp., New York, 145-162.

Riddiford LM. 1994. Cellular and molecular action of juvenile hormone. I. General  considerations  and  premetamorphic  actions.  Advances in  Insect Physiology 24, 213-243. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0065-2806(08)60084-3

Riddiford LM. 2008. Juvenile hormone action: A 2007 perspective. Journal of Insect Physiology 54, 895-901. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jinsphys.2008.01.014

Roberto CF, Sosa ME, Favier LS, Penna F, Guerreiro E, Giordano OS, Tonn CE. 1998. Growth inhibitory activities of benzofuron and chromene derivatives towards Tenebrio molitor. Journal of Natural Products 61, 1209-1211. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/np9800248

Rust MK, Hemsarth WLH. 2017. Intrinsic activity of IGRs against larval cat fleas. Journal of Medical Entomology 54(2), 418-421.

Sariaslani FS, McGee LR, Ovenall DW. 1987. Microbial transformation of precocene II: Oxidative reactions by Streptomyces griseus.  Applied and Environmental Microbiology 53(8), 1780-1784.

Saxena RC, Sharma M, Kumar ML, Bansal SK, Shrivastava D. 1994. Developmental effects of 6, 7-dimethoxy-2,2-dimethyl chromene on the preimaginal stages of Anopheles stephensi. Proceedings of the Academy of Environmental Biology, India 3,181-184.

Shonouda ML, Osman SL. 2000. New botanical derivatives, used in medicinal reparations, showing bioactive action on insect pests.1-Toxicological effect on the development of Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Journal of Egyptian German Society of Zoology 31, 227-234.

Shuto A, Kuwano E, Eto M. 1988. Synthesis of two optical isomers of the insect anti-juvenile hormone agent fluoromevalonolactone (FMev) and their biological activities. Agricultural and Biological Chemistry 52(4), 915-919. https://doi.org/10.1271/bbb1961.52.915

Singh S, Kumar K. 2011.  Sensitivity of last larval stadium of Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) to anti-allatin ageratochromene Precocene II. Indian journal of Experimental Biology 49, 600-608.

Smagghe G, Degheele D. 1994. The  significance  of  pharmacokinetics  and  metabolism  to  the  biological  activity  of  RH-5992 (tebufenozide)  in  Spodoptera  exempta,  Spodoptera  exigua and Leptinotarsa decemlineata. Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology 49, 224-234. https://doi.org/10.1006/pest.1994.1050

Smagghe G, Carton B, Wesemael W, Ishaaya I, Tirry L. 1999. Ecdysone agonists-mechanism of action and application on Spodoptera species. Pesticide Science 55, 343-389. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)10969063(199903)55:3<386::AID-PS922>3.0.CO;2-5

Srivastava S, Kumar K. 1996. Effect of precocenes on metamorphosis of flesh fly, Sarcophaga ruficornis F. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology 34, 547-553.

Srivastava S, Kumar K. 1997. Precocene I and II induced metamorphosis in a noctuid moth, Spodoptera litura Fabr. The Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, India 67(B), 213-226.

Srivastava S, Kumar K. 1999. Juvenilizing effects of ethoxyprecocene in a lepidopteran insect. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology 37(4), 379-383. http://hdl.handle.net/123456789/19032

Staal GB. 1982. Insect control with growth regulation interfering with the endocrine system. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 31, 15–23. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1570-7458.1982.tb03115.x

Staal GB.1986. Anti-juvenile hormone agents. Annual Review of Entomology 31, 391-429.

Subrahmanzam B, Müller T, Rembold H. 1989. Inhibition of turnover of neurosecretion by azadirachtin in Locusta migratoria. Journal of Insect Physiology 35, 493-500. https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-1910(89)90056-5

Szczepanik M, Obara R, Szumny A, Gabryś B, Halarewicz-Pacan A, Nawrot J, Wawrzeńczyk C. 2005. Synthesis and insect antifeedant activity of precocene derivatives with lactone moiety. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 53, 5905-5910. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf058034j

Tarrant C, Cupp EW, Bowers WS. 1982. The effects of precocene II on reproduction and development of triatomine bugs (Reduviidae: Triatominae). American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.31(2), 416-420. http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.1982.31.416

Tatar M, Kopelman A, Epstein D, Tu M-P, Yin C-M, Garofalo RS. 2001a. A mutant Drosophila insulin receptor homolog that extends life-span and impairs neuroendocrine function. Science 292, 107-110. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1057987

Tatar M, Priest N, Chien S. 2001b. Negligible senescence during reproductive diapause in D. melanogaster. The American Naturalist 158, 248–258. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/321320

Tiryaki D, Temur C. 2010. The fate of pesticide in the environment. Journal of Biodiversity and Environmental Sciences 4(10), 29-32.

Trigo JR, Campos S, Pereira AM. 1988. Presença de alcalóides pirrolizidinicos em Ageratum conyzoides L. In: Simposio de Plantas Medicinais do Brasil, Sao Paulo. (Resumos).p. 13.

Truman JW, Riddiford LM. 2007. The morphostatic actions of juvenile hormone. Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 37, 761-770. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ibmb.2007.05.011

Van Der Gaag N. 2000. Pick your poison. New Internationalist 323, 9-11.

Walkowiak K, Spochacz M, Rosinski G. 2015. Peptidomimetics- A new class of bioinsecticides. Postepy Biologii Komorki 42(2), 235-254.

Wang Y, Wang M. 2007. The research of IGRs. World Pesticides 29, 8-11.

Wilson TG. 2004. The molecular site of action of juvenile hormone and juvenile hormone insecticides during metamorphosis: how these compounds kill insects. Journal of Insect Physiology 50(2/3), 111-121. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jinsphys.2003.12.004

Wu J. 2002. The application of IGRs in agricultural pest control. Pesticides 41, 6-8.

Yasyukevich VV, Zvantsov AB. 1999. Effects of antihormones on the susceptibility of Anopheles sacharovi mosquitoes to the malaria causative organism Plasmodium gallinaceum. Meditsinskaya Parazitologiya i Parazitarnye Bolezni 68, 46-48.

Yoshida T, Shiotsuki T, Kuwano E. 2000. Synthesis and precocious metamorphosis-inducing activity of 3-(1-alkenyl) pyridines. Journal of  Pesticide Science 25,  253-258. https://doi.org/10.1584/jpestics.25.253

Zhou Z, Deng G, Luo S. 2003. Study and application of IGRs. Guangxi. Agriculture Science 1, 34-36.