Factors affecting distribution of coliforms bacteria in semi-arid groundwater sources- Tanzania
Adekunle IM, Adetunji MT, Gbadebo M, Banjoko OP. 2007. Assessment of groundwater quality in a typical rural settlement in southwest Nigeria. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 4(4), 307-318.
Ahaneku IE, Adeoye PA. 2014. Impact of Pit Latrines on Groundwater Quality of Fokoslum , Ibadan , Southwestern Nigeria. British Journal of Applied Science and Technology 4(3), 440-449.
Aladejana T, Talabi B. 2015. Assessment of Groundwater Quality in Abeokuta Southwestern. Journal, International Engineeringscience 2(6), 21-31.
Aller DM, Lwiza KM, Pizer ME, Aller JY. 2013. Water Source Quality in Northern and Central Tanzania: Implications for Rural Communities. Journal of Environmental Protection 04(05), 389-404.
APHA. 2005. Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater: American Public Health Association.
CAWST. 2013. Introduction to Drinking Water Quality Testing. Centre for Affordable Water and Sanitation. Calgary Alberta -Canada.
Cronin A, Breslin N, Gibson J, Pedley S. 2006. Monitoring source and domestic water quality in parallel with sanitary risk identification in Northern Mozambique to prioritise protection interventions. Journal of Water and Health 4(3), 333-345.
Elisante E, Muzuka AN. 2016. Sources and seasonal variation of coliform bacteria abundance in groundwater around the slopes of Mount Meru , Arusha , Tanzania. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. https://doi. org/10.1007/s10661-016-5384-2
Fan M, Steinberg VE. 1996. Health implications of nitrate and nitrite in drinking water: an update on methemoglobinemia occurrence and reproductive and developmental toxicity. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology 23(1), 35-43.
Frisbie SH, Ortega R, Maynard DM, Sarkar B. 2002. The concentrations of arsenic and other toxic elements in Bangladesh’s drinking water. Environmental Health Perspectives 110(11), 1147-1153. https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.021101147
Gerba CP, Bitton G. 1984. Microbial pollutants: their survival and transport pattern to groundwater. Groundwater Pollution Microbiology, 65-88.
Joseph O, David O. 2011. Pollution effect of pit latrines on shallow wells at Isale-. Journal of Geology and Mining Research 3(8), 211-218.
Kanyerere T, Levy J, Xu Y, Saka J. 2012. Assessment of microbial contamination of groundwater in upper Limphasa River catchment , located in a rural area of northern Malawi. Water South Africa 38(4), 581-596.
Kashaigili J. 2010. Assessment of Groundwater Availability and its Current and Potential Use and Impacts in Tanzania. Reporrt Prepared for the International Water Management Institute (IWMI).
Kelly MO, Stephani IR. 2016. Depth and Well Types Related to Groundwater Microbiological Contamination. International Journal Of Environmental Research and Public Health 13.
Kihupi C, Yohana L, Saria J, Malebo H. 2016. Fecal Contamination of Drinking-Water in Tanzania’s Commercial Capital, Dar Es Salaam : Implication on Health of Consumers. Public Health and Epidemiology 2(1), 1-5.
Kiptum CK, Ndambuki JM. 2012. Well water contamination by pit latrines: A case study of Langas. International Journal of Water Resources and Environmental Engiineering 4(2), 35-43. https://doi.org/10.5897/IJWREE11.084
Knobeloch L, Salna B, Hogan A, Postle J, Anderson H. 2000. Blue babies and nitrate-contaminated well water. Environmental Health Perspectives 108(7), 675-678.
Lapworth DJ, Baran N, Stuart ME, Ward RS. 2012. Emerging organic contaminants in groundwater: A review of sources, fate and occurrence. Environmental Pollution 163, 287-303. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2011.12.034.
Lin CY, Abdullah MH, Musta B, Aris AZ, Praveena SM. 2010. Assessment of selected chemical and microbial parameters in groundwater of Pulau Tiga, Sabah, Malaysia. Sains Malaysiana 39(3), 337-345.
Mahali R, Flora K. 2017. Water, sanitation and hygiene services in Tanzania: access, policy trends and financing Report. The Economic and Social Research Foundation (ESRF).
Mahfouz AR, Abdel-moneim M, Al-erian RAG, Al-ama OM. 1995. Impact of chlorination of water in domestic storage tanks on childhood diarrhoea : a community trial in the rural areas of Saudi Arabia, 126-130.
Manassaram DM, Backer LC, Moll DM. 2006. A review of nitrates in drinking water: Maternal exposure and adverse reproductive and developmental outcomes. Environmental Health Perspectives 114(3), 320-327. https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.8407
Mato R. 2002. Groundwater pollution in Urban Dar es salaam, Tanzania. PhD thesis. Eindhoven University of Technology. https://doi.org/10.1201 /9780203963548
Mdoe JEG, Buchweishaija J. 2014. The Quality of Groundwater from Wells in Squatter and Non-Squatter Settlements in Dar es Salaam City, Tanzania. International Journal of Engineering and Technology 3(9), 1442-1445.
NBS. 2012. Population and Housing Census. Population Distribution by Administrative Areas. Dar es Salaam: United Republic of Tanzania.
Palamuleni L, Akoth M. 2015. Physico-chemical and microbial analysis of selected borehole water in Mahikeng, South Africa. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 12(8), 8619-8630.
Prakash KL, Somashekar RK. 2006. Groundwater quality-Assessment on Anekal Taluk, Bangalore Urban district, India. Journal of Environmental Biology 27, 633-637.
Prasanth SVS, Magesh NS, Jitheshlal KV, Chandrasekar N, Gangadhar K. 2012. Evaluation of groundwater quality and its suitability for drinking and agricultural use in the coastal stretch of Alappuzha District, Kerala, India. Applied Water Sciences 2,165-175.
Pritchard M, Mkandawire T, O’Neill JG. 2007. Biological, chemical and physical drinking water quality from shallow wells in Malawi: Case study of Blantyre, Chiradzulu and Mulanje. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth 32(15-18), 1167-1177. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pce.2007.07.013
Reddy KR, Khaleel R, Overcash MR. 1981. Behaviour and transport of microbial pathogens and indicator organisms in soils treated with organic wastes. Journal of. Environ. Quality 10(3), 255-266.
Shuval HI, Gruener N. 1977. Infant methemoglobinemia and other health effects of nitrates in drinking water. proceedings of the conference on Nitrogen as a Water Pollutant Vol. 8, Elsevier Ltd. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-1-4832-1344-6.50017-4
Sobsey MD, Handzel T, Venczel L. 2003. Chlorination and safe storage of household drinking water in developing countries to reduce waterborne disease. Water Science and Technology 47(3), 221-228.
Sjogren RE. 1994. Prolonged survival of an environmental Escherichia coli in laboratory soil microcosms. Water Air & Soil Pollution. Water Air and Soil Pollution 75(3-4), 389-403.
Tairu HM, Kolawole TA, Adaramola KA, Stewardship SM. 2015. Impact of human population and household latrines on groundwater contamination in Igboora Community , Ibarapa Central Local Government Area of Oyo State. International Journal of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering 7(6), 84-91. https://doi.org/10.5897/IJWREE2015.
TBS. 2005. TZS 789-2003-Drinking (potable) Water specification. National Environmental Standards Compedium.
Tredoux G, Engelbrecht P, Israel S. 2009. Nitrate in groundwater. Why is it a hazard and how to control it . Report to the Water Research Comision by CSIR, Natural Resources and the Environment Stellenbosch. Retrieved from www.wrc.org.za.
Trivede P, Bajpai A, Thareja S. 2010 Comparative study of seasonal variations in physico-chemical characteristics in drinking water quality of Kanpur, India with reference to 200 MLD filteration plant and groundwater. Natural Science 8(6), 11-17.
Umezawa Y, Hosono T, Onodera S, Siringan F, Buapeng S, Delinom R, Taniguchi M. 2009. Sources of nitrate and ammonium contamination in groundwater under developing Asian megacities . Science of the Total Environment 407(9), 3219-3231. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2009.01.048
URT. 2014a. United Republic of Tanzania. Basic Demographic and Socio Economic Profile.
URT. 2014b. United Republic of Tanzania. Water Sector Development Programme Phase II(2014/ 2015–2018/2019).
Wang P, Wang Y, Bai Y, Tian Z, Li J, Shao XM. 2013. Assessment of surface water quality via multivariate statistical techniques: A case study of Songhua River Harbin region, China. Journal of Hydro- Environment Research 7, 30-40.
Water Aid. 2000. Groundwater Quality: Tanzania. British Geological Survey.
Water Series. 2007. Total, Fecal & E. coli Bacteria in Groundwater. Water Supply. Report.
WHO. 2004. Sulfate in drinking-water background document for development of who guidelines for drinking-water quality. Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality.
WHO/UNICEF. 2015. World Health Organization (WHO) and United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), Progress on Sanitation and Drinking Water– 2015 update and MDG Assessment Report. Switzerland.
WHO/UNICEF. 2012. Progress on drinking-water and sanitation update. Report. Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation World Health Organization. 66. http://www.unicef. org/media/files.
WWAP. 2014. The United Nations World Water Development Report 2014: Water and Energy.