Int. J. Biosci.15(1), 554-563, July 2019
Field survey to identify diseases, insect pests of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) MOENCH) and to evaluate the efficacy of three plants powder on flea beetles in Abraka, Oria, Eku and Ovu inland was conducted. Diseased okra parts were collected for isolation and identification in the laboratory using standard mycological manual while two methods of insect capture were employed; handpicking for wingless insects and use of hand net for flying insects. Insect were identified using standard taxonomic keys with the aid of hand lens and light microscope. Laboratory efficacy was done using contact method at 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 3.0% in three replicates. The concentrations of Permethrin (at 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 3.0%) served as control. Six (6) fungi were isolated from different diseased plants with frequency of occurrence as leaf spot (70%), fruit rot and stem rot (15%) respectively. Isolated fungi with their percentage frequency include Aspergillus fumigantus (16.67%), Cercospora species (31.91%), Fusarium oxysporum (9.05%), Fusarium solani (13.33%), Mucor species (19.05%), and Trichoderma hazianum (10.0%). The insect pest were Podagrica sp. (38.23%), Plagiodera versicolor (19.80%), Platycorynchus peregrinus (7.17%), Solenopsis sp. (6.14%) amongst others. Podagrica sp was used for the study due to its abundance. The various concentrations of powders from Aframomum melegueta, Denettia tripetala and Zingiber officinale used against the test insects showed significant differences (p<0.05) in the insect mortality. The highest mortality (%) was recorded in D. tripetala (LC50= 0.56 and LC95= 3.02) compared to Permethrin (LC50= 0.24 and LC95= 1.49). The highest mortality time was recorded in Permethrin (LT50= 9 hours) compared to D. tripetala (LT50= 13hour/30minutes) and other powders. Therefore, the use of these plant powders especially that of D. tripetala can be a good alternative to the commercial pesticide in insect post control thereby improving environmental safety and avoiding food poisoning.
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