Floristic composition, life forms and geographical distribution of semi steppe pastures of Western Zagros (case study: Perdanan, West Azerbaijan, Iran)

Paper Details

Research Paper 01/04/2014
Views (176) Download (12)

Floristic composition, life forms and geographical distribution of semi steppe pastures of Western Zagros (case study: Perdanan, West Azerbaijan, Iran)

S. Ghollasimood, O. Amousi, B. Fattahi
J. Bio. Env. Sci.4( 4), 75-86, April 2014.
Certificate: JBES 2014 [Generate Certificate]


Western forests in Iran cover more than 5 million hectares which compromised 45% of total forest of Iran. Floristic composition of this forest is poorly described while they are under sever threat of degradation. Species compositions were studied through 797 ha of Perdanan pastures in 30 km far from Piranshahr. The average rainfall is 670 mm per year, the altitude is 1455 m and the climate is semi-arid and cold. In total 108 species belong to 29 family within 84 genes were identified. The most spacious family were Poaceae (16 species, 18.39%) followed by Asteraceae (15 species, 13.9%), Fabaceae (14 species, 12.96%) and Apiaceae (8 species, 7.4%). Therophytes were the dominant life forms, accounted for 33.3%, followed by hemicryptophytes (28%), phanerophytes (21.3%), chamaeophytes (10.2%) and cryptophytes (6.4%). Irano-Turanian was the most dominant 34.5% (30 species) chorotypes and 28.17% (25 species) belong to Irano-Turanian-Mediterranean-Euro-Siberian in which showed this area not only located in Irano-Turanian but is on the belt between these two areas.


Abdi E, Majnouunian B, Rahimi H and Zobeiri M. 2009. Distribution and tensile strength of Hornbean (Carpinus betulus) roots growing on slopes of Caspian forest, Iran. Journal of Forestry Research 20(2), 105-110.

Agakhanjanz O, Breckle SW. 1995. Origin and evolution of the mountain flora in middle and central Asia. In: Chapin III FS, Ko¨rner C (eds) Arctic and alpine biodiversity: patterns, causes and ecosystem consequences. Ecology Studies 113, 63-80.

Agakhanjanz O, Breckle SW. 2002. Plant biodiversity and endemism in high mountains of Central Asia, the Caucasus and Siberia. Mountain biodiversity – a global assessment. Parthenon Publ. Chapter 9, 117-127.

Agakhanjanz, O, Breckle SW. 1995. Arctic and alpine biodiversity: Origin and evolution of mountain flora in Middle Asia and neighboring mountain regions

Akhani H, Djamali M, Ghorbanalizadeh A and Ramezani E. 2010. Plant biodiversity of Hyrcanian relict forests, N Iran: an overview of the flora, vegetation, palaeoecology and conservation. Pakistan Journal of Botany 42, 231-258.

Akhani H. 1998. Plant biodiversity of Golestan National Park. Stapfia 53,1-411.

Akhani H. 2005. The illustrated flora of Golestan National Park, Iran, Tehran Univ. Press., V0l. p.1-4811, 481pp. (In Persian).

Archibold OW. 1995. Ecology of world vegetation. Chapman and Hall Inc. London, 510.

Arzani H, Basiri M, Khatibi F, Ghorbani G. 2006. Nutritive value of some Zagros Mountain rangeland species. Small Ruminant Research 65, 128-135.

Asri U. 2000. An ecological survey of plant communities of arid regions-Case study: Touran Biosphere Reserve, Semnan Province, Iran. PhD. Thesis, R&S unit of Islamic Azad Univ., 302. (In Persian).

Assadi M, Maassoumi AA, Khatamsaz M, Mozaffarian V. 1988. Flora of Iran. Vols. 1-66, Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands Publications, Tehran. (In Persian).

Bradshaw CJA., Sodhi NS and Brook BW. 2008. Tropical turmoil: a biodiversity tragedy in progress. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 7, 79-87.

Cain SA. 1950. Life-forms and phytoclimate. The Botanical Review 16(1), 1-32.

Ebrahimi RM, Latifi G, Bodaghy E. 2003. The role of Pistacia atlantica in forest management of outside Caspian area of Iran. Iranian Journal of Forest and Poplar Research, a Special Issue: The Second National Symposium on Wild Pistachio. 333, 518-542 (Iin Persian).

Eeley K, Avies S, Erez O, Hubbell S, Oster R. 2011. Directional changes in the species composition of a tropical forest. Ecology 92(4), 871-882.

El-Moslimany AP. 1986. Ecology and late-quaternary history of the Kurdo-Zagrosian oak forest near Lake Zeribar, Western Iran. Vegetation 68, 55-63.

Fatahi B, Aghabaygi A, Ildormi S, Sabetpor A, Erfanzadeh T, Ahmadipor S. 2009. Studies on life-forms and geographical region of north of Iran (Study Case: Noor). Geography and Management 14(27).

Ghahramani Nejad F and Agheli S. 2009. Floristic composition of Kiasar National Park. Taxonomy and Biosystematics 1, 47-62.

Ghahreman A, Naqinezhad A, Hamzeh’ee B, Attar F and Assadi M. 2006. The flora of threatened black alder forests in the Caspian lowlands, Northern Iran. Rostaniha 7, 5-30.

Ghazanfari H, Namiranian M Sobhani H, Mohajer RM. 2004. Traditional forest management and its application to encourage public participation for sustainable forest management in the northern Zagros Mountains of Kurdistan Province, Iran. Scandinavian . Journal. Forest. Research. 19(4), 65-71.

Gillespie TW, Grijalva A, Farris CN. 2000. Diversity, composition and structure of tropical dry forests in Central America Plant Ecology 147: 37-47.

Hopper SD & Gioia P. 2004. The Southwest Australian Floristic Region: evolution and conservation of a global diversity hotspot. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics, 35, 623-650.

IPCC, 2007a. Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Working Group II contribution to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. In: Parry M, Canziani O, Palutikof J, van der Linden P, Hanson C, (ed.s) Cambridge University Press Cambridge, UK and New York, NY, USA

Jafari SM and Akhani H. 2008. Plants of Jahan nama protected area, Golestan province, N. Iran. Pakistan Journal of Botany 40, 1533-1554.

Körner C. 2002. Mountain biodiversity, its causes and functions: an overview. In: Körner C, Spehn EM,. (ed.s) Mountain biodiversity: a global assessment. Parthenon Publishing, London.

Ku¨rschner H. 1986. The subalpine thorn-cushion formation of western South-West Asia: ecology, structure and zonation. Procprocessing Royal Society Edinburg 89B, 169-179.

Ludwig JA, Reynold JF. 1988. Statistical ecology: a primer on methods and computing. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Maass J. 1995. Conversion of tropical dry forest to pasture and agriculture. In: Bullock SH, Mooney HA, and Medina E, (ed.) Seasonally dry tropical forests. Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, 399-422.

Majnoonian H. 2002 Guidance to National Park and Preserved Areas Preparation for Tourism, International Uunion of Preservation. (In Persian).

Mobayen S. 1991. Phytogeographical. Tehran: Tehran University Press, 271.

Mousavi KS, Ali Roshani G, Jalali SG and Shahrdami A. 2012. The effects of cover crown, percentage and slope aspect on the Quantitative Distribution of the Alder’s Saplings in Forests of North of Iran. Resources and Environment 2(1), 17-20.

Naginejad A, Zarezadeh S. 2012. Study on plant sociology of Noor and Sisangan forests, mazandaran Province. Botany, 5(16), 103-121.

Noroozi J, Akhani H, Breckle S. 2008. Biodiversity and phytogeography of the alpine flora of Iran. Biodiversity Conservation 17:493-521

Noroozi J, Akhani H, Breckle SW. 2007. Biodiversity and phytogeography of the alpine flora of Iran. Biodiversity Conservation DOI 10.1007/s10531-007-9246-7.

Pauli H, Gottfried M, Dirnbock T. 2003. Assessing the long-term dynamics of endemic plants at summit habitats. In: Nagy L, Grabherr G, Ko¨rner C et al. (eds.). Alpine biodiversity in Europe – a Europewide assessment of biological richness and change. Ecological Studies, vol 167. Springer, p. 195-207.

Pauli H., Gottfried M, Reiter K, Klettner C, Grabherr G. 2007. Signals of range expansion and contractions of vascular plants in the high Alps: observations (1994–2004) at the GLORIA master site Schrankogel, Tyrol, Austria. Global Change Biology 12, 1-10.

Peres C A, Gardner TA, Barlow J, Zuanon J, Michalski F, Lees AC, Vieira ICG, Moreira FMS and Feeley KJ. 2010. Biodiversity conservation in human modified Amazonian forest landscapes. Biological Conservation 143, 2314-2327.

Pickering C, Hill W, Green K. 2008. Vascular plant diversity and climate change in the alpine. Biodiversity Conservation 17, 1627-1644.

Pourreza  M,  Hosseini  SM,  Zohrevandi  AA, 2012. Spatial variations of diameter of Pistacia atlantica (Desf.) trees in Zagros area (Case Study: Pirkashan, Kermanshah). Journal of Wood & Forest Science and Technology, 19(3), 1-19.

Pourreza M, Shawb JD, Zangeneh H. 2008. Sustainability of wild pistachio (Pistacia atlantica Desf.) in Zagros forests, Iran. Forest Ecology and Management 255, 3667-3671.

Ramezani E, Mohadjer MR, Knapp HD, Ahmadi H and Joosten H. 2008. The late-Holocene vegetation history of the Central Caspian (Hyrcanian) forests of northern Iran. The Holocene 18, 307-321.

Raunkiaer C. 1934. The life forms of plants and statistical geographical. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 632.

Scholes RJ, Biggs R. 2004. Ecosystem services in southern African: a regional assessment. Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Pretoria

Stephens S, Wagner M. 2007. Forest plantations and biodiversity: A fresh perspective. Journal of Forest 105, 307-313.

Swaine M, Liebsch D. 2011. Diversity distribution and floristic differentiation of the coastal lowland vegetation: implications for the conservation of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest Marcia C. M. Marques. Biodiversity and Conservation 20, 153-168.

Theurillat JP, Guisan A. 2001. Potential impacts of climate change on vegetation in the European Alps: a review. Climatic Change. 50, 77-109.

Van Rooyen MW, Theron GK, Grobbelaar N. 1990. Life forms and spectra of flora of Namaqualand, South Africa. Journal of Arid Environments 19 (2), 133-145.

Wright SJ. 2005. Tropical forests in a changing environment. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 20, 553-560.

Zohary M. 1973. Geobotanical foundations of the Middle East. Gustav Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart.