Welcome to International Network for Natural Sciences | INNSpub

Floristic structure and ecological attributes of Jelar valley flora, district Upper Dir, Pakistan

Research Paper | May 1, 2017

| Download 5

Shariat Ullah, Lal Badshah

Key Words:

J. Bio. Env. Sci.10( 5), 89-105, May 2017


JBES 2017 [Generate Certificate]


The present study was conducted during March 2015 to October 2016 for exploring the floristic composition and biological spectrum of Jelar valley, District Upper Dir. Raunkiaer was followed for the classification of plants into various life form and leaf size classes. Floristic list of the study area revealed that flora of Jelar valley was diverse and comprised of 250 species belonging to177 genera and 77 families. The dominant families in term of species richness were Asteraceae and Lamiaceae, (each with 20 Species, 8%), Rosaceae (19 Species, 7.6%) and Papilionaceae (16 Species, 6.4%), while the dominant genera were Polygonum and Rosa (each with 5 Species). Due to harsh climatic conditions in winter, maximum numbers of species were found in summer and autumn. Biological spectra showed that therophytes (101 Species, 40.4%) and hemicryptophytes (43 Species, 17.2%) were dominant while in leaf size classes microphylls (32%) and nanophylls (30%) were dominant. Seasonal variation in life form and leaf form spectra are also described. The present work concluded that the flora of the area is diverse. Phytoclimate of the area is therophytic type and the environmental condition of the area is greatly disturbed by biotic pressure on the flora. This floristic study is the first inventory of the area and provides baseline information for the future prediction of the flora.


Copyright © 2017
By Authors and International Network for
Natural Sciences (INNSPUB)
This article is published under the terms of the Creative
Commons Attribution Liscense 4.0

Floristic structure and ecological attributes of Jelar valley flora, district Upper Dir, Pakistan

Ali A, Badshah L, Hussain F, Shinwari ZK. 2016. Floristic composition and ecological characteristics of plants of Chail vally, District Swat, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Botany 48, 1013-1026. www.pakbs.org/pjbot

Ali SI, Nasir YJ (Eds.).1989-1992. Flora of Pakistan. Islamabad, Karachi.

Ali SI, Qaiser M. 1986. A phytogeographical analysis of the phanerogames of Pakistan and Kashmir. Proceeding of the Royal Society of Edinburg 89, 89-101. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0269727000008939

Ali SI, Qaiser M. (Eds.).1995-2015. Flora of Pakistan. Department of Botany, University of Karachi.

Alsherif EA, Ahmad M, Ayesh, Rawi SM. 2013. Floristic composition, life form and chorology of plant life at Khulais Region, Western Saudi Arabia. Pakistan Journal of Botany 45, 29-38. www.pakbs.org/pjbot

Al-Yemeni M, Sher H. 2010. Biological spectrum with some other ecological attributes of the flora and vegetation of the Asir Mountain of South West, Saudi Arabia. African Journal of Biotechnology 9, 5550-5559.

Amjad MS, Hameed A, Hussain Z. 2012.Life Form and Leaf Spectra Reported From Sub-Tropical to Alpine and Subalpine Zone of Basu Hills, District Sakardu Gilget Pakistan. International Journal of Emerging Sciences 2, 543-551.

Badshah L, Hussain F, Sher Z. 2013. Floristic inventory, ecological characteristics and biological spectrum of rangeland, District Tank, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Botany 45, 1159-1168. www.pakbs.org/pjbot

Badshah L, Hussain F, Sher Z. 2016. Floristic inventory, ecological characteristics and biological spectrum of plants of Parachinar Kurram, Agency, Pakistan.  48, 1547-1558. www.pakbs.org/pjbot

Cain SA, Castro GM. 1959. Manual of Vegetation Analysis.Harper, NYpp. 325.

Costa RC, Araujo FS, Lima-Verde LW. 2007. Flora and life-form spectrum in an area of deciduous thorn woodland (Caatinga) in Northeastern, Brazil Journal of Arid Environments 68, 237-247.

Dolph GE, Dilcher DL. 1980. Variation in leaf size with respect to climate in Costa Rica. Biotropica 12, 91-9. https://doi.org/10.1111/btp.12370

Durrani MJ, Razaq A, Muhammad SG, Hussain F. 2010. Floristic diversity, ecological, characteristics and ethnobotonical profile of plants of Aghberg rangelands, Balochistan, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Plant Sciences 16, 29-36.

Farag  El-M. 2014. Floristic Composition and traditional uses of plant species at Wadi Alkuf, Al-Jabal Al-Akhder, Libya. American-Eurasian Journal of Agricultural & Environmental Sciences14, 685-697. www.idosi.org/aejaes/jaes14(8)14/1.

Guo QS, Wang XF, Bar G, Kang Y, Hong M, Pei SX, Zhang FJ. 2009. Life form spectra, leaf character, and hierarchical-synusia structure of vascular plants in Thuja sutchuehensis community. Pub Med 20, 2057-2062. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20030122

Humboldt A. 1886. Ideen zu einer Physiognomik der Gewechra.Tubingeon.

Hussain F. 1989. Field and Laboratory Manual of Plant Ecology.UGC. Islamabad.

Hussain F, Shah SM, Badshah L, Durrani MJ. 2015. Diversity and ecological characteristics of flora of Mastuj vally, District Chitral, Hindukush Range, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Botany 47, 495-510. www.pakbs.org/pjbot

Ilyas M, Shinwari ZK, Qureshi R. 2012. Vegetation composition and threats to the mountain forest ecosystem of Qalagai hills, Swat, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Botany 44, 113-122. www.pakbs.org/pjbot

Malik ZH, Hussain F. 1990. Phytosociology of some parts of Kotli Hills, Azad Kashmir. Journal of Science and Technology 14, 117–123. https://doi.org/10.11131/OAJoST

Manhas RK, Singh L, Vasistha HB, Negi M. 2010. Floristic diversity of protected ecosystems of Kandi Region of Punjab, India.New York. Science Journal 3, 96-103. www.sciencepub.net/newyork.

Mehmood A, Khan SM, Shah AH, Shah AH, Ahmad H. 2015. First floristic exploration of the District Torghar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Botany 47, 57-70, 2015. www.pakbs.org/pjbot

Musharaf K, Hussain F, Musharaf S, Imdadullah. 2011. Floristic composition, life form and leaf size spectra of the coal mine area vegetation of Dara Adam Khel, Khyber Pakhtonkhwa, Pakistan. Journal of Biodiversity and Environmental Sciences 1, 2222-3045. https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.1359948

Musharaf K, Hussain F, Musharaf S. 2014. Floristic composition and ecological characteristics of Shahbaz Garhi, District Mardan, Pakistan. Global Journal of Science Frontier Research 14, 2249-4626. https://doi.org/10.5897/AJAR12.2095. 15.

Naqinezhad A, Zarezadeh S. 2012. A contribution to flora, life form and chorology of plants in Noor and Sisangan lowland forests.Taxonomy and Biosystematics, 4th Year 13, 31-44.

Oosting HJ. 1956. The Study of Plant Communities, 2nd edition, p: 440. W.H. Freeman and company, San-Francisco, California, USA.

Ozgur E, Ansin R. 2003. The flora of Hatila Valley National Park and its close Environs (Artvin) Turkey. Turkish Journal of Botany 27, 1-27. https://doi.org/

Perveen A, Sarwar GR, Hussain I. 2008. Plant biodiversity and phytosociological attributes of Dureji (Khirthar Range). Pakistan Journal of Botany 40, 17-24. www.pakbs.org/pjbot

Qadir SA, Tareen RB. 1987. Life form and Leaf size spectra of the flora of Quetta District. In Modern Trends of Plant Science Research in Pakistan 59-62.

Raunkiaer C. 1934. The life forms of plants and statistical plants geography being the collected papers of C. Raunkiaer. Clarendon press, Oxford.

Saima S, Dasti AA, Abbas Q, Hussain F. 2009. Floristic diversity during monsoon in Ayubia National Park, District Abbottabad, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Plant Sciences16, 43-50.

Samreen U, Ibrar M, Badshah L. 2016. Floristic composition, Ecological characters and Biological characters of Darazinda F. R. D. I. Khan, Pakistan. International Invention Journal of Agricultural and Soil Science 4, 9-21.

Saxena AK,Pandey TP, Singh JS. 1987. Altitudinal variation in the vegetation of Kaumaun Himalaya. Perspectives in Environmental Botany 44–66.

Saxena AK, Pandey TP, Singh JS. 2004. Biological spectrum and other structural functional attributes of the vegetation of Kumaun Himalaya. Plant Ecology 49, 111-119. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00052766

Segawa P, Nkuutu DN. 2006. Diversity of vascular plants on Ssese islands in Lake Victoria, central Uganda. African Journal of Ecology 44, 22-29. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2028.2006.00609.

Shah A, Ayaz S, Hussain F. 1991.Similarity indices, biological spectrum and phenology of plant communities of Docut Hills, District Swat during winter.  Journal of Science and Technology 15, 15-21. https://doi.org/10.17138/TGFT(3)161-186.

Shah SM, Hussain F, Ibrar M. 2006. Floristic composition, Life form and Leaf size spectra of summer plants of Mastuj, District Chitral. PUTAJ Journal of Sciences 13, 167-179.

Sharma J, Raina AK, Sharma S. 2014. Life form classification and biological spectrum of Lamberi Forest Range, Rajouri, J & K, India. International Journal of Current Microbiology and  Applied Sciences 3, 234-239.

Shimwell DW. 1971. Description and Classification of Vegetation. Sidgwoick and Jackson, London.

Sikarwar RL. 1996. Life form and biological spectrum of the flora of Morena district Madhya Pradesh. Journal of Indian Botanical Society 75, 275-277.

Ullah I, Din SU, Ullah F, Khan SU, Khan A, Khan RA, Shah MS, Zulqarnain. 2016. Floristic composition, ecological characteristics and biological spectrum of District Bannu, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Journal Human Ecology 54, 1-11.

Zarezade A, Mirvakili M, Mirhosseini A. 2007. Identified of flora, life form and geographical distribution of plants Damgahan Mehriz of Yazd province. Journal of  Pajoohesh Sazandegi 74, 129-137.