Food fortification: A strategy to combat with malnutrition

Paper Details

Review Paper 01/09/2019
Views (346) Download (18)

Food fortification: A strategy to combat with malnutrition

Abdul Majid, Farah Naz, Abdul Rahman Phul, Aamir Hassan Khaskheli, Sanaullah Abbasi, Muzafar Husain Sirohi, Israr Ahmed, Safdar Hussain Ujjan, Sham Lal, Imdad Ali Jokhio, Waqar Ahmed
J. Bio. Env. Sci.15( 3), 59-66, September 2019.
Certificate: JBES 2019 [Generate Certificate]


Insufficient nutrients from agriculture output in some way create malnutrition. A better knowledge of requirement of sustainable and healthier diet from agriculture to food processing is critical. This study investigated the influence of food fortification in dealing with malnutrition related disorders. Various factors influencing the effectiveness of the strategy; include bioavailability of the nutrient, product acceptance, accessibility and edibility. In developing fortified food, these factors need to be considered for the selection of the fortifiers and the vehicle food. Mass fortification can only be effective in commonly consumed food items. Specific product level fortification found to be effective only dealing with the target population with similar food habits. Corrective actions needed to be taken for reducing or controlling the health problems in developing and developed countries. Though, the problem is more intense in developing countries, developed countries are also affected by nutritional issues. Food fortification have greater applicability for dealing with malnutrition related chronic issues that are less severe and do not require instant action, however in acute deficiency medical or supplements are required. The bioavailability of nutrients can be controlled with increased half-life in fortified foods in comparison to other strategies like direct supplementation, clinical interventions.


Ahmed S, Wakil W, Saleem, HMS, Shahid M, Ghazanfar MU. 2010. Effect of iron fortified wheat flour on the biology and physiology of red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst). International Journal of Insect Science 2, 29-33.

Ashraf MY, Ashraf M, Ozturk M. 2018. Underutilized Vegetables: A Tool to Address Nutritional Issues, Poverty Reduction and Food Security. In: Global Perspectives on Underutilized Crops: Springer (pp. 1-23).

Bjelakovic G, Stojanovic I, Stoimenov TJ, Pavlovic D, Kocic G, Bjelakovic GB. 2017. Polyamines, folic acid supplementation and cancerogenesis. Pteridines 28, 115-131.

Bruins MJ, Kupka R, Zimmermann MB, Lietz G, Engle-Stone R, Kraemer K. 2016. Maximizing the benefits and minimizing the risks of intervention programs to address micronutrient malnutrition: Symposium report. Maternal & child nutrition 12, 940-948.

Darus NM, Yunus AR, Rahman NW. 2017. Factors enhancing the performance of SMEs’ services sectors: A conceptual framework. International Journal of Advanced and Applied Sciences 4, 160-166.

Das JK, Salam RA, Thornburg KL, Prentice AM, Campisi S, Lassi ZS, Bhutta ZA. 2017. Nutrition in adolescents: physiology, metabolism, and nutritional needs. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1393, 21-33.

De Onis M. 2017. Child growth and development. In: Nutrition and Health in a Developing World Umana Press 119-141.

Dwyer JT, Bailey RL. 2017. The Role of Fortification and Dietary Supplements in Affluent Countries: Challenges and Opportunities. In: Sustainable Nutrition in a Changing World, Springer 389-406.

El-Mesery HS, Mao H. 2017. Theoretical and experimental analysis of drying kinetics of tomato slices by using infrared dryer. International Journal of Advanced and Applied Sciences 4, 137-142.

Garcia-Casal MN, Peña-Rosas JP, De-Regil LM, Gwirtz JA, Pasricha SR. 2018. Fortification of maize flour with iron for controlling anaemia and iron deficiency in populations. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 12, 1-6

Huysentruyt K, Hulst J, Bian F, Shamir R, White M, Galera-Martinez R, Gerasimidis K. 2018. Opinions and practices of healthcare professionals on assessment of disease associated malnutrition in children, Results from an international survey. Clinical Nutrition 38, 708-714

Majid A, Naz F, Phull AR, Abbasi S, Abbasi S, Khaskheli AH, Sirohi MH, Ahmed I, Ahmed W, Narejo GF. 2019. Extraction and quantification of tocopherols from edible oils using high performance liquid chromatography. International Journal of Biosciences 14, 181-187.

Majid A, Phull AR, Khaskheli AH, Abbasi S, Sirohi MH, Ahmed I, Ujjan SH, Jokhio IA, Ahmed W. 2019. Applications and opportunities of supercritical fluid extraction in food processing technologies: A review. International Journal of Advanced and Applied Sciences 6, 99-103.

Mannar MGV, Hurrell RF. 2018. Food Fortification: Past Experience, Current Status, and Potential for Globalization. In: Food Fortification in a Globalized World: Academic Press 3-11.

Osendarp SJM, Martinez H, Garrett GS, Neufeld LM, De-Regil LM, Vossenaar M, Darnton-Hill I. 2018. Large-Scale Food Fortification and Biofortification in Low-and Middle-Income Countries: A Review of Programs, Trends, Challenges, and Evidence Gaps. Food and Nutrition Bulletin 39, 315-331.

Phull A, Ali A, Ahmed M, Zia M, Haq I, Kim S. 2017. In vitro antileishmanial, antibacterial, antifungal and anticancer activity of fucoidan from Undaria pinnatifida. Internaional Journal of Biosciences 11, 219-227.

Pisa PT, Landais E, Margetts B, Vorster HH, Friedenreich CM, Huybrechts I, Leclercq C. 2018. Inventory on the dietary assessment tools available and needed in africa: a prerequisite for setting up a common methodological research infrastructure for nutritional surveillance, research, and prevention of diet-related non-communicable diseases. Critical reviews in food science and nutrition 58, 37-61.

Ponce MC, Polman K, Roos N, Wieringa FT, Berger J, Doak CM. 2018. What Approaches are Most Effective at Addressing Micronutrient Deficiency in Children 0–5 Years? A Review of Systematic Reviews. Maternal and child health journal 1-14.

Ritchie H, Roser M. 2019. Micronutrient Deficiency. Our World in Data. Retrieved from

Roni M. 2017. Sustainable manufacturing drivers and firm performance: Moderating effect of firm size. International Journal of Advanced and Applied Sciences 4, 243-249.

Ruia A, Gupta RK, Bandyopadhyay G. 2018. Implication of Malnutrition on Human Capital: Bridging the Inequality through Robust Economic Policies. Indian Journal of Public Health Research & Development 9, 75-79.

Salim R, Nazir F, Amin F. 2017. Blending of wheat and soybean for development of high protein biscuits. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry 6, 2241-2244.

Underwood B A, Smitasiri S. 1999. Micronutrient malnutrition: policies and programs for control and their implications. Annual review of nutrition 19, 303-324.

Webb P, Stordalen GA, Singh S, Wijesinha-Bettoni R, Shetty P, Lartey A. 2018. Hunger and malnutrition in the 21st century. BMJ 361, 1-9.

Weng TF, Khin AA. 2017. Consumer attitude towards intention to purchase green foods in chicken meat industry. International Journal of Advanced and Applied Sciences 4, 155-158.

Wiens D, DeSoto M. 2017. Is High Folic Acid Intake a Risk Factor for Autism?—A Review. Brain sciences 7, 149.

Williams J, Mai CT, Mulinare J, Isenburg J, Flood TJ, Ethen M, Kirby RS. 2015. Updated estimates of neural tube defects prevented by mandatory folic Acid fortification-United States, 1995-2011. MMWR. Morbidity and mortality weekly report 64, 1-5.