Formulation, Development, and Characterization of Herbal Soap infused with KaPaMa (Euphorbia neriifolia, Diplazium esculentum, and Coleus blumei) extracts

Paper Details

Research Paper 03/09/2023
Views (831) Download (130)

Formulation, Development, and Characterization of Herbal Soap infused with KaPaMa (Euphorbia neriifolia, Diplazium esculentum, and Coleus blumei) extracts

Jinky Marie T. Chua
Int. J. Biosci.23( 3), 24-32, September 2023.
Certificate: IJB 2023 [Generate Certificate]


Herbal soap production promotes the use of natural and sustainable personal care products; and non-wood forest products, which can provide economic opportunities for local communities while contributing to biodiversity conservation and promoting the use of traditional medicinal plants. This study aimed to formulate, develop, and characterize an herbal soap infused with KaPaMa (Karimbuaya, Pako, Mayana) leaf extracts and evaluate its physicochemical properties. Six different soap base formulations were prepared, and the best soap formulation was selected, which did not contain propylene glycol. KaPaMa extracts were incorporated at three different concentrations (0.2%, 0.4%, 0.8%), and the developed KaPaMa soaps were evaluated for their physicochemical properties. The extracts of Euphorbia neriifolia (Karimbuaya), Diplazium esculentum (Pako), and Coleus blumei (Mayana) contain phytochemicals that exhibit antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties, making them suitable for use in soap formulations. The KaPaMa soaps were found to have acceptable pH and low total alkali content, indicating that these are not corrosive to human skin. However, the soaps had low foaming ability, high moisture content, and total fatty matter. Further optimization of the formulation is recommended to improve foaming ability and reduce moisture content.


Arasaretnam S, Venujah K. 2019. Preparation of soaps by using different oil and analyze their properties. Natural Products Chemistry & Research 7, 1.

Carvalho IT, Estevinho BN, Santos L. 2016. Application of microencapsulated essential oils in cosmetic and personal healthcare products – a review. International Journal of Cosmetic Science, 38(2), 109-119.

Chirani MR, Kowsari E, Teymourian T, Ramakrishna S. 2021. Environmental impact of increased soap consumption during COVID-19 pandemic: Biodegradable soap production and sustainable packaging. The Science of the Total Environment 796, 149013.

Dema N, Subba JR. 2022. Physiochemical Properties of the Commercial Herbal Soaps of Bhutan. The Research Journal of Sherubtse College 15, 18-23.

Devipriya Nisha P, Nivetha L, Deepak K. 2021. Formulation, Development and Characterization of Herbal Soap Using Borassus flabellifer and Curcuma zedoaria. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research 69(2), 134-139.

Eastin I. 2001. Some Considerations for the More Effective Production and Marketing of Non-Timber Forest Products in the Philippines. College, Los Baños, Laguna Philippines.

Firempong CK, Mak-Mensah EE. 2011. Chemical characteristics of toilet soap prepared from neem (Azadirachtaindica A. Juss) seed oil. Asian Journal of Plant Science and Research 1(4), 1–7.

Guevarra B. 2005. A guidebook to phytochemical screening: phytochemical and biological. Manila: UST Publishing House.

Idoko O, Emmanuel SA, Salau AA, Obigwa PA. 2018. Quality assessment of some soaps sold in Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Technology 37(4), 1137-1140.

Kundu MK, Deb AT, Gupta SP. 1977. A simple rapid method for direct determination of total fatty matter in soaps 79, 285-288.

Mendes BR, Shimabukuro DM, Uber M, Abagge KT. 2016. Critical assessment of the pH of children’s soap. Journal of Pediatria. jped.2015.08.009.

Muñoz MNM, Alvarado UG, Reyes JI, Watanabe K. 2021. Acute oral toxicity assessment of ethanolic extracts of Antidesma bunius (L.) Spreng fruits in mice. Toxicology Reports 8, 1289-1299.

Mwanza C, Zombe K. 2020. Comparative Evaluation of Some Physicochemical Properties on Selected Commercially Available Soaps on the Zambian Market 7, 1-13.

Nadeeshani Dilhara Gamage DG, Dharmadasa RM, Abeysinghe DC, Saman Wijesekara RG, Prathapasinghe GA, Someya T. 2022. Global Perspective of Plant-Based Cosmetic Industry and Possible Contribution of Sri Lanka to the Development of Herbal Cosmetics. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM, 2022.

Oyedele A, Akinkunmi EO, Doyinsola D, Orafidiya L. 2017. Physicochemical properties and antimicrobial activities of soap formulations containing Senna alata and Eugenia uniflora leaf preparations. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research 11, 778-787.

Oyekunle AO, Ore OT, Ogunjumelo OH,  Akanni MS. 2021. Comparative chemical analysis of Indigenous Nigerian soaps with conventional ones. Heliyon 7(4).

Razal RA, Palijon AM. 2009. Non-Wood Forest Products of the Philippines. UPLB College of Forestry and Natural Resources, College, Laguna 4031. ISBN No. 978-971-579-058-1

Rajčević N, Bukvički D, Dodoš T, Marin PD. 2022. Interactions between Natural Products—A Review. Metabolites 12(12).

Roila A, Salmiah A, Razmah. 2001. Properties of sodium soap derived from palm based hydroxystearic acid. Journal of Oil Palm Research 13(2), 33-38.

Vivian OP, Nathan O, Osano A, Mesopirr L, Omwoyo WN. 2014. Assessment of the physicochemical properties of selected commercial soaps manufactured and sold in Kenya. Open Journal of Applied Sciences 4, 433-440.