Welcome to International Network for Natural Sciences | INNSpub

Frequency of anemia in aids patients receiving zidovudine based highly active anti-retroviral therapy

Research Paper | February 1, 2018

| Download 6

Yaseen Khan, Sadaf Abdullah, Hashmat Ullah, Diya Ajmal, Adil Khan, Muhammad Irfan, Tahir Khan, Eiman Sumayyah, Sahib Zada, Wasim Sajjad

Key Words:

Int. J. Biosci.12( 2), 35-42, February 2018

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12692/ijb/12.2.35-42


IJB 2018 [Generate Certificate]


Worldwide, there are an estimated 33 million persons infected with HIV. Before starting AIDS patient on Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Therapy (HAART), one or more of the following criteria should be met: CD4 count < 500cells/mcl, rapidly dropping CD4 count, hepatitis B or C co-infection, the risk of cardiac disease, HIV nephropathy, increased risk for non-HIV related cancers. Five categories of drugs are used usually in combination; the Nucleoside reverse transcriptase Inhibitors (NRTIs), Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), Protease inhibitors (PIs), Chemokine receptor antagonists (CCR5 antagonists) and integrase inhibitors (II). The objective of the study was to determine the frequency of anaemia in AIDS patients receiving Zidovudine based Anti-Retroviral Therapy. Total 209 patients were enrolled, 16.2% using Zidovudine based therapy for six months. Our study showed that among 209 patients mean age was 32 years with SD ± 3.51. Seventy-two percent patients were male while 28% patients were female.  Mean HB level was 13 g/dl with SD ± 2.53. More over 20% patients were anaemic and 80% patients were not anaemic.  Thus, this study concluded that the incidence of anaemia in AIDS patients receiving Zidovudine based Anti-Retroviral Therapy was found to be 20%.


Copyright © 2018
By Authors and International Network for
Natural Sciences (INNSPUB)
This article is published under the terms of the Creative
Commons Attribution Liscense 4.0

Frequency of anemia in aids patients receiving zidovudine based highly active anti-retroviral therapy

Spivak JL, Barnes DC, Fuchs E, 1989. Serum immunoreactive erythropoietin in HIV-infected patients. Journal of the American Medical Association 261, 3104-3107.

Medina I, Mills J, Leoung G, 1990. Oral therapy for Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in the acquired immune deficiency syndrome. A controlled trial of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole versus trimethoprim-dapsone. New England Journal of Medicine 323, 776-782.

Shet A, Antony J, Arumugam K, Kumar Dodderi S, Rodrigues R, DeCosta A. 2014. Influence of Adverse Drug Reactions on Treatment Success: Prospective Cohort Analysis of HIV-Infected Individuals Initiating First-Line Antiretroviral Therapy in India. PLoS ONE 9(3), e91028. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0091028

Forna F, Moore D, Mermin J, Brooks JT, Were W, Buchacz K. 2009 Mar-Apr. Hematologic changes associated with Zidovudine following single-drug substitution from stavudine in a home-based AIDS care program in rural Uganda. Journal of the International Association of Providers of AIDS Care 8(2), 128-138 https://doi.org/10.1177/1545109709333081

Katz MH, Zolopa AR. 2015.  HIV infection and AIDS. In: Papadakis MA, Mcphee SJ editors, Current medical diagnosis and treatment 2015. 54th ed. San Francisco: Lange Medical Publications; p.1306-31.

Agarwal D, Chakravarty J, Chaube L, Rai M, Agrawal NR. 2010. High incidence of zidovudine-inducedanaemia in HIV infected patients in eastern India. Indian Journal of Medical Research 132, 386-389.

Bekolo CE, Sonkoue C, Djidjou H, bekoule PS, Kollo B. 2014 Sep 25. Evaluating the utility of early laboratory monitoring of antiretroviral inducedhaematological and hepatic toxicity in HIV infected persons in Cameron. BMC Infectious Diseases 14, 519. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2334-14-519

Grant RM, Lama JR, Anderson PL. 2010 Dec 30.  Pre-exposure chemoprophylaxis for HIV prevention in men who have sex with men. New English Journal of Medicine. 363(27), 2587-99. http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1011205.

Cohen MS, Chen YQ, McCauley M, Gamble T, Hosseinipour MC, Kumarasamy N. 2011Aug 11.  Prevention of HIV-1 infection with early antiretroviral therapy. New English Journal of Medicine. 365(6), 493-505. http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1105243.

Choopanya K, Martin M, Suntharasam P, Sangkum U, Mock P, Leethochawalit M. 2013.  Antiretroviral prophylaxis for HIV infection in injecting drug users in Bangkok, Thailand (the Bangkok Tenofovir Study): a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 trial. Lancet. 2083-90.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(13)61127-7.

Leibowitz AA, Parker KB, Rotheram-Borus MJ. 2011 Jun.  A US Policy Perspective on Oral Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis for HIV. American Journal of Public Health 101(6), 982-5. http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2010.300066.

Marrazzo JM, del Rio C, Holtgrave DR. 2014 Jul 23-30.  International Antiviral Society-USA Panel. HIV prevention in clinical care settings: 2014 recommendations of the International Antiviral Society-USA Panel. Journal of the American Medical Association 312(4), 390-409.

Richman DD, Fischl MA, Grieco MH. 1987. The toxicity of azidothymidine (AZT) in the treatment of patients with AIDS and AIDS-related complex. A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. New English Journal of Medicine 317, 192-197.

Walker RE, Parker RI, Kovacs JA. 1988. Anemia and erythropoiesis in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and Kaposi sarcoma treated with zidovudine. Annals of Internal Medicine 108, 372-376.

Volberding PA, Lagakos SW, Koch MA. 1990. Zidovudine in asymptomatic human immunodeficiency virus infection. A controlled trial in persons with fewer than 500 CD4-positive cells per cubic millimeter. The AIDS Clinical Trial Group of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. New English Journal of Medicine 322(14), 941-949. http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJM199004.053221401

Collier AC, Bozzette S, Coombs RW. 1990. A pilot study of low-dose zidovudine in human immunodeficiency virus infection. New English Journal of Medicine  323, 1015-1021. http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJM199010113231502

Eron JJ, Benoit SL, Jemsek J. 1995. Treatment with lamivudine, zidovudine, or both in HIV-positive patients with 200 to 500 CD4+ cells per cubic millimeter. New English Journal of Medicine; 333(25), 1662-1669. http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJM199512213332502

Isaakidis, Raquenaud, Phe T, Khim SA, Kuoch S, Khem S. 2008Sep 1. Evaluation of a systematic substitution of zidovudine for stavudine-based HAART in a program setting in rural Cambodia.  Acquired Immunodeficiency.  49(1), 48-54.

Akhtar N, Qazi RA, Rajput AM. 2008. Hematological Abnormalities among Patients on Ziduvudine Containing Anti-Retroviral Therapy. Annals of Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences 4(3), 132-135.

Meidani M, Rezaei F, Maracy MR, Avijgan M, Tayeri K. 2012 Feb.  Prevalence, severity, and related factors of anemia in HIV/AIDS patients. Journal of Research in Medical Sciences. 17(2), 138–142.

Huffam SE, Srasuebkul P, Zhou J, Calmy A, Saphonn V, Kaldor JM, Ditangco R. 2007 Oct. TREAT Asia HIV Observational Data base (TAHOD). Prior antiretroviral therapy experience protects against zidovudine related anaemia. HIV Medicine. 8(7), 465-71. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-1293.2007.00498.x