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Frequency of hyponatremia and its common complications among patients with hepatic encephalopathy

Research Paper | January 1, 2017

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Hashmat Ullah Khan, Fazal Malik, Yaseen Khan, Sahib Zada, Nikhat Ilahi, Mohammad Sohail, Wasim Sajjad

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Int. J. Biosci.10( 1), 195-201, January 2017

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12692/ijb/10.1.195-201


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The main theme of this study was to determine the frequency of hyponatremia and its common complications among patients suffering of hepatic encephalopathy due to liver cirrhosis. Descriptive cross sectional study was designed for current research. The samples were obtained from department of medicine, Lady Reading Hospital Peshawar, Pakistan. Total of 139 patients with hepatic encephalopathy and hyponatremia were analysed in this cross sectional study. Hepatic encephalopathy was ranked on the basis of West Haven classification (4 grades). Relationship of hyponatremia was correlated with severity grade of encephalopathy using Spearman rank correlation test. Male to female samples ratio was 1.48:1. The patient’s average age was 49.23 ± 10.24 years. Hyponatremia was found in 30 patients (21.60%). The most common complication was Worsening of Hepatic Encephalopathy which was observed in 15 patients (10.80%). Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis was also found in 9.4% patients. Higher probability of a possibly negative effect of lower serum sodium concentration and even a slight decline in the cirrhosis clinical course has been concluded.


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Frequency of hyponatremia and its common complications among patients with hepatic encephalopathy

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