Fungistatic potential of Sonchus asper against Botrytis cinerea and Rhizoctonia solani

Paper Details

Research Paper 01/01/2017
Views (292) Download (7)

Fungistatic potential of Sonchus asper against Botrytis cinerea and Rhizoctonia solani

Tayyaba Ejaz, Khajista Jabeen, Sumera Iqbal, Aroosa Naeem
Int. J. Biosci.10( 1), 327-334, January 2017.
Certificate: IJB 2017 [Generate Certificate]


Sonchus asper L. was evaluated for its antifungal potential against Botrytis cinerea Pers. and Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn. Various concentrations viz. 1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, 5% of methanolic extract of aerial part of S. asper were tested against B. cinerea and R. solani. All the applied concentrations of tested extracts significantly inhibited the growth of tested fungi up to 37%-74%. Methanolic extract of aerial parts was partitioned with n-hexane, ethyl acetate, chloroform and n-butanol. These isolated organic fractions were further serially diluted from 100 mg to 0.78 mg mL-1 to evaluate their Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC). A synthetic fungicide (Puslan, 72 WP) was used as reference and data was recorded at interval of 24, 48 and 72 hours. Ethyl acetate and Puslan (Synthetic fungicides) were found highly effective against both the test fungi with MIC of 0.78 mg after 72 hrs of incubation period. Chloroform and n-hexane fractions also inhibited the fungal growth.


Agrios GN. 1988. Plant pathology, 3rd ed. Academic Press. INC. San Diego, New York, Berkeley, Boston, London, Sydney, Tokyo Toronto.

Ahmad M, Khan MA, Manzoor S, Zafar M, Sultana S. 2006. Check list of medicinal flora of Tehsil Isakhel, District Mianwali Pakistan. Ethnobotanical Leaflets 10, 41-48.

Elad Y, Williamson B, Tudzynski P, Delen N. 2004. Botrytis spp. and diseases they cause in agricultural systems – an introduction. Botrytis: Biology, Pathology and Control, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, Netherlands 1-6.

Elkhayat ES. 2009. Cytotoxic and antibacterial constituents from the roots of Sonchus oleraceus L. growing in Egypt. Pharmacognosy Magazine. 5(20), 324-328.

Giner RM, Ubeda A, Just MJ, Serrano A, Manez S, Rios JL. 1993. A chemotaxonomic survey of  Sonchus subgenus Sonchus, Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 21, 6-17.

Hanekamp JC, Kwakman J. 2004. Beyond Zero-Tolerance: A novel and global outlook on food-safety and residues of pharmacological active substances in foodstuffs of animal origin, Directorate-General Enterprise and Industry, European Commission Brussels.

Hussain J, Muhammad Z, Ullah R, Khan FU, Khan IU, Khan N, Ali J, Jan S. 2010. Evaluation of the chemical composition of Sonchus eruca and Sonchus asper. Journal of American Science 6(9), 231-235.

Hussain K, Shahazad A, Zia-ul-Hussnain U. 2008. An ethnobotanical survey of important wild medicinal plants of Hattar, District Haripur Pakistan. Ethnobotanical Leaflets 12, 29-35.

Jabeen K, Zubairi T, Iqbal S. 2014. Management of Botrytis cinerea (grey mold disease) by methanolic extract of Pongamia pinnata L. Mitteilungen Klosterneuburg 64, 105-113.

Jan G, Khan MA, Gul F. 2009. Ethnomedicinal Plants Used against Jaundice in Dir Kohistan valleys (NWFP) Pakistan. Ethno botanical Leaflets 13, 1 029-1041.

Jimoh FO, Adeolu AA, Afolayan AJ. 2011. Comparison of the nutritive value, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Sonchus asper and Sonchus oleraceus. Records of Natural Products. 5(1), 29-42.

Kareru PG, Kenji GM, Gachanja AN, Keriko JM, Mungai G. 2007. Traditional medicine among the Embu and Mbeere peoples of Kenya. African Journal of Traditional: Complementary and Alternative Medicines 4, 75-86.

Khan RA, Khan MR, Sahreen S, Bokhari J. 2010. Cytotoxic and antibacterial constituents from the roots of Sonchus oleraceus L. growing in Egypt. African Journal of Biotechnology 9(25), 3883-3887.

Koche DK, Shirsat RP, Imran S, Nafees M, Zingare AK, Donode KA. 2008. Ethno medicinal survey of Nigeria Wildlife Sanctuary, District Gondia (MS). India- Part II. Ethno botanical Leaflets 12, 532-537.

Macías FA, Galindoadoand JCG, Massanet GM. 1992. Potential allelopathic activity of several sesquiterpene lactone model. Phytochemistry 31, 1969-1977.

Manez S, Recio MC, Giner RM, Sanz MJ, Terencio MC, Peris JB, Stubing G, Rios JL. 1994. A chemotaxonomic review of the subtribe Crepidinae based on its phenolic constituents. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 22, 297.

Marta A, Julie B, Nelleman C, Kiersgaard M, Rosenkjold PJ, Christiansen S, Hongard KS, Halla U. 2011. Exposure to widely used Mancozeb causes thyroid hormone disruption in rat dams but no behavioral effects in the offsprings. Journal of Toxicological Sciences 10, 1093-1094.

Mishra RK, Adholeya A, Sardana HR. 2012. Integrated pest management: strategies for onion and garlic. The energy and resources institute, New Delhi.

Myresiotis CK, Karaoglanidis GS, Tzavella-Klonari K. 2007. Resistance of Botrytis cinerea isolates from vegetable crops to anilinopyrimidine, phenylpyrrole, hydroxyanilide, benzimidazole and dicarboximide fungicides. Plant Diseases 91, 407-413.

Nagamalleswari K, Yasodamma N, Binny RJA. 2013. Phytochemical screening, antibacterial and antifungal studies of Pittosporum floribundum wight & arn. leaf, bark, fruit and seed extracts. International Journal of Pharma and Biosciences 4, 464-474.

Parameter JR. 1970. Rhizoctonia solani, Biology and pathology, University of California Press, Berkeley 3-5.

Parker KF. 1972 An illustrated guide to Arizona weeds, The University of Arizona Press, Tucson, Arizona 338.

Priya, GS, Radhika R, Siddhuraju P. 2012. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of traditional Indian leafy vegetables: Mukia maderaspatana and Solanum trilobatum. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences 4(2), 513-521.

Qureshi R, Waheed A, Arshad M, Umbreen T. 2009. Medicoethanobotanical inventory of tehsil Chakwal, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Botany 41, 529-538.

Rehman EU. 2006 Indigenous knowledge on medicinal plants, village Barali Kass and its allied areas, district Kotli Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan. Ethnobotanical Leaflets 10, 254-264.

Rivera ND, Oben DCC. 1993. Ethnopharmacology of Murcia (SE Spain). Conference International Ethnomedecine 2, 7.

Shahbaz H, Jabeen K, Iqbal S. 2015. Evaluation of antifungal activity of Solanum nigrum against Aspergillus niger, the cause of black rot disease of onion. Pakistan Journal of Phytopathology 27(2), 121-125.

Shimizu S, Miyase T, Ueno A, Usmanghani K. 1989. Sesquiterpene lactone glycosides and ionone derivative glycosides from Sonchus asper. Phytochemistry 28, 3399.

Steel RGD, Torrie JH, Dickey DA. 1997. Principles and Procedures of Statistics: A Biometrical Approach. New York, USA: Mc Graw Hill Book Co., Inc (ISBN 0070610282).

Townsend BB, Willets HJ. 1957. The development of Sclerotia of different fungi. Transactions of the British Mycological Society 37, 213-22.

Upadhyay H, Kumar A, Gupta MK, Sharma A, Rahal A. 2013. Validation of medicinal values of traditionally used Sonchus asper (prickly sow thistle) leaves for the treatment of skin ailments. Advancement in Medicinal Plant Research 1(1), 29-35.

Waheed N, Jabeen K, Iqbal S, Javaid A. 2016. Biopesticidal activity of Calotropis procera L. against Macrophomina phaseolina African Journal of  Traditional: Complementary and Alternative Medicines 13(6), 163-167.

Webster J. 1980. Introduction to Fungi, 2nd ed. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge UK.

Williamson BTudzynski BTudzynski P, Van KJA. 2007. Botrytis cinerea: the cause of grey mould disease. Molecular Plant Pathology 8(5), 561-580.

York SH. 2007. Grey mould (Botrytis cinerea): Plant health care fact sheet. Central Science Laboratory, United Kingdom.

Yua H, Suttona JC. 1999. Density dynamics of Gliocladium roseum in relation to biological control of Botrytis cinerea in red raspberry. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology 21(1), 23-32.

Zabihullah Q, Rashid A, Akhter N. 2006. Ethanobotnical survey in Kot Manzary Baba valley Malakand Agency, Pakistan. Pakistan, Pakistan Journal of Plant Sciences 12, 115-121.