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Geo-chemical investigation and health risk assessment of potential toxic elements in industrial wastewater irrigated soil: A geo-statistical approach

Research Paper | June 1, 2018

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Nisar Muhammad, Mohammad Nafees

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J. Bio. Env. Sci.12( 6), 124-138, June 2018


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The current study was conducted to identify potential toxic elements (PTEs) concentrations and associated health risk assessment (HRA) in adjacent agricultural soil of Gadoon Amazai industrial estate (GAIE) irrigated with industrial wastewater from last three decades. To achieve the objectives, 32 target and 21 reference soil samples were collected and analyzed for PTEs concentration. Geo-chemical results revealed that all the nine PTEs in target samples were above the permissible limits of different international standards and reference samples, indicating that industrial wastewater is causing potential ecological risk to target agriculture soil. Geo-statistical results revealed that geo-accumulation (Igeo), contamination factor (CF), enrichment factor (EF) and pollution load index (PLI) were at significant levels and can cause potential ecological risks. Health risk assessment revealed that hazard quotient ingestion (HQ Ing) in children is the main source of non-carcinogenic risk and can cause significant health risks. This HQ Ing for children contributes to 76% of the total hazard index (HI). The study recommends sustainable treatment of the contaminated soil. Furthermore, residents of the study area should be made aware of the ecological risks associated with the wastewater irrigation and contaminated agricultural soil.


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Geo-chemical investigation and health risk assessment of potential toxic elements in industrial wastewater irrigated soil: A geo-statistical approach

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