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Geometric morphometric and heavy metals analysis of flathead grey mullet (Mugil cephalus), from Agusan River, Butuan city, Philippines

Research Paper | July 1, 2017

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Cresencio C. Cabuga Jr, Romell A. Seronay, Manilyn A. Busia, Nova P. Billuga, Maria Anita Ayaton, Mafi Kamille A. Angco, Candy Claire D. Joseph, Jevonie R. Guilleno, Rea Mae A. Colon, Honelyn C. Havana, Marco Lawrence M. Budlayan, Suzette M. Arriza

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J. Bio. Env. Sci.11( 1), 134-151, July 2017


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Geometric Morphometric used as a tool in quantifying phenotypic variations among species of the same population. The analysis of heavy metals in the fishes created to determine the extent of harmful elements found since it serves as a human food source. This study aims to determine the fluctuating asymmetry (FA) in the body shapes of Mugil cephalus and levels of cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), and lead (Pb) in the muscles. In FA, a total of 100 samples (50 males & 50 females) were randomly collected and subjected to Symmetry and Asymmetry Geometric Data software. Results of Procrustes ANOVA showed a highly significant difference (P<0.0001) between sexes. Females obtained the highest percentage of FA (77.93%) than males (77.43%). This indicates that females change in body shape was associated with sustaining homeostasis and metabolic responses during reproduction. For the analysis of Cd, Cr and Pb three stations were established with three replicates each. A total of nine fish of the same size and weight regardless of sexes were collected and subjected to analysis. The concentrations of heavy metal were found in the order of Pb>Cr>Cd. Pb had the highest concentrations (4.11 ± 0.11 ppm), Cr (0.5 ± 0 ppm) and Cd (BDL) Below Detection Limit. One-way ANOVA showed that the concentrations of heavy metals were significantly higher (P<0.05). Pb and Cr exceeded the recommended safe limit in foods set by US EPA, FAO and WHO (Pb ≤0.5 ppm, Cr ≤0.01 ppm). This suggests that frequent consumption may pose risk to human health.


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Geometric morphometric and heavy metals analysis of flathead grey mullet (Mugil cephalus), from Agusan River, Butuan city, Philippines

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