Germination of Garcinia kola (heckel) seeds in response to seed sectioning, chemical pretreatment and different temperatures

Paper Details

Research Paper 01/04/2019
Views (242) Download (18)

Germination of Garcinia kola (heckel) seeds in response to seed sectioning, chemical pretreatment and different temperatures

Joseph M. Asomaning
J. Bio. Env. Sci.14( 4), 44-53, April 2019.
Certificate: JBES 2019 [Generate Certificate]


Garcinia kola Heckel is a multi-purpose tree widely used in West Africa resulting in its over-exploitation, the species is extinction-threatened. On farm conservation through cultivation has been recommended. However, seeds of the species can take about 18 months to germinate. This study aims at generating information on how the combinations of the techniques of seed sectioning, chemical treatment and temperature can be used to enhance germination of the seed. Seed sections and whole seeds pretreated with dormancy breaking chemicals were germinated on a gel of 1% water agar at 20, 25, 30 and 35°C. Statistical design used in the investigation was a completely randomized design in a 5×7×4 factorial (germination materials × chemical treatments × temperature). Germination data showed significances (p<0.001) namely: germination materials, germination temperatures, germination materials x germination temperatures, germination materials x chemicals, germination temperatures x chemicals.


Aduse-Poku K, Nyinaku F, Atiase VY, Awuah R, Mensah EO, Nyantakyi D, Owusu HK and Agyenim-Boateng B. 2003. Improving rural livelihoods within the context of sustainable development: case study of Goaso forest district. Tropenbos International Ghana, University of Amsterdam and Institute of Renewable Natural Resources 50 pp.

Agyili J, Sacandé M, Koffi E and Peprah T. 2007. Improving the collection and germination of West African Garcinia kola Heckel seeds. New Forests 34, 269-279.

Akoachere JF, Ndip RN, Chenwi EB, Ndip LM, Njock TE and Anong DN. 2002. Antibacterial effect of Zingiber officinale and Garcinia kola on respiratory tract pathogens. East Africa Medical Journal 79(11), 588-592.

Anegbeh PO, Iruka C and Nkirika C. 2006. Enhancing germination of bitter cola (Garcinia kola) Heckel: prospects for agroforestry farmers in the Niger Delta. Scientia Africana 5(1), 1118-1931.

Asomaning JM, Olympio NS, Sacandé M. 2011. Desiccation sensitivity and germination of recalcitrant Garcinia kola Heckel seeds. Research Journal of Seed Science 4(1), 15-27.

Asomaning JM. 2009. Seed desiccation tolerance and germination of seven important forest tree species in Ghana. Thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. School of Graduate Studies, Department of Horticulture. Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST), Kumasi, Ghana 1-187 .

Choudhary DK. 1975. Causes of poor and erratic germination in Atropa belladonna. Planta Med 27, 18-22. DOI: 10. 1055/s-0028-1097754.

Daws ML, Gaméné SC, Sacandé M, Pritchard HW, Groot PCG and Hoekstra F. 2004. Desiccation and storage of Lannea microcarpa seeds from Burkina Faso. pp 32-39.

Eyog-Matig O, Aoudji AKN, Linsouss C. 2007. Garcinia kola Heckel seeds dormancy-breaking. Applied Ecology and Environmental Research 5(1), 63-71.

Farombi EO, Adepoju BF, Ola-Davies OE and Emerole GO. 2005. Chemoprevention of aflatoxin B1-induced genotoxicity and hepatic oxidative damage in rats by kolaviron, a natural bioflavonoid of Garcinia kola seeds. European Journal Cancer Prevention 14 (3), 207-214.

Food and Agriculture Organization, FAO. 1996. Côte d’Ivoire: Rapport de pays pour la conférence technique internationale de la FAO sur les ressources phytogénétiques. FAO 75 pp.

Geeta J, Kumar AH, Balakrishna G, Srinivisa YB. 2006. Production of supernumerary plants from seed fragments in Garcinia gummi-guta: evolutionary implications of mammalian frugivory. Current Science 91(3), 372-376.

International Seed Testing Association, ISTA. 1999. International rules for seed testing. Supplement to Seed Science and Technology 27, 1-133.

Irvine FR. 1961. Woody Plants of Ghana with Special Reference to their Uses. Oxford Univ. Press 143-144.

Malik SK, Chaudhury R, Kalia RK. 2005. Rapid in vitro multiplication and conservation of Garcinia indica: a tropical medicinal tree species. Scientia Horticulturea 106, 539-553.

Nair PKR. 1990. The prospects for agroforestry in the tropics. Technical Paper 131. Nairobi, ICRAF.

Nzegbule E, Mbakwe R. 2001. Effect of pre-sowing and incubation treatment on germination of Garcinia kola (Heckel) seeds. Fruits 56(6), 437-442.

Of ori DA, Asomaning JM, Peprah T, Agyeman VK, Anjarwalla P, Tchoundjeu Z, Mowo JG, Jamnadass R. 2015. Addressing constraints in propagation of Allanblackia spp. through seed sectioning and air layering. Journal of Experimental Biology and Agricultural Sciences 3(1), 89-96.

Orie NN, Ekon EU. 1993. The bronchodilator effect of Garcinia kola. East Africa Medical Journal 70(3),143-145.

Rai ND. 2003. Human use, reproductive ecology and life history of Garcinia gummi-guta : a non-timber forest product, in the western Gaths, India. Thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. Pennsylvania State University, Graduate School, Department of Biology 191 pp.

Smith MT, Wang BSP, Msanga HP. 2002. Dormancy and germination. In: Tropical tree seed manual, ed. J.A. Vozzo. U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Science pp. 149-176.

Taiwo O, Xu HX, Lee SE. 1999. Antibacterial activities of extracts from Nigerian chewing sticks. Phytotherapy Research 13(8), 675-679.

Tchatat M. 1999. Produits forestiers autres que le bois d’œuvre (PFAB): place dans l’aménagement durable des forêts denses humides d’Afrique centrale. Série FORAFRI, document 18. CIRAD, CIFOR, IRAD & CARPE 103 pp.

Vogel E. de F. 1980. Seedlings of dicotyledons – Structure, development, types. Descriptions of 150 woody Malesian taxa. Centre for Agricultural Publishing and Documentation. Wageningen, 1980. ISBN 90‐220‐0696‐4.

Watson L, Dallwitz MJ. 2009. The families of flowering plants. Guttiferae. Juss. descriptions, illustrations, identification and information retrieval. Version 19th August 2014.

Wong JLG. 1997. That State of Ghana’s Forest (1986-1997). Non-timber forest products. Fountain Renewable Resource Ltd., UK 29 pp.