Int. J. Biosci.13( 3), 297-305, September 2018
The study determined the potential of four fungi associated with vermicast namely Aspergillus niger, Rhizopus stolonifer, Aspergillus fumigatus and Rhizomucor pusillus in producing gibberellin-like activity that can promote plant growth. Coleoptile elongation and length of second leaf sheath of rice seeds and corn seeds were evaluated in the study. Coleoptile of rice seeds treated with fungal extracts were significantly lower than those treated with gibberellic acid. Whereas in corn, the gibberellin-like activity was observed at 24 hours of incubation in coleoptiles treated with A. fumigatus fungal spent and R. pusillus in ethanol extract (5.56mm and 5.49mm), at 48 hours of incubation, R. pusillus fungal spent and crude extract (11.65mm and 11.63mm), and at 72 hours, R. stolonifer ethanol extract and fungal spent (20.10mm and 19.38mm).Moreover, the second leaf sheath of rice seeds with the highest mean length was observed with R. stolonifer ethanol extract (39.15mm). Whereas, the longest second leaf sheath of corn was treated with A. niger, R. stolonifer and A. fumigatus crude extracts with mean values of 53.58mm, 51.88mm and 48.33mm, respectively. Thus, all fungi associated with vermicast exhibited growth promoting activity which influence the elongation in test plants.
Aksoz N, Bilkay S, Şkarakoc S. 2008. Indole-3-acetic acid and gibberellic acid production in Aspergillus niger. Turkish Journal of Biology 34, 313-318. http://dx.doi.org/10.3906/biy-0812-15
Bridge P, Spooner B. 2001. Soil fungi: diversity and detection. Plant and Soil 232, 147-154.
Bomke C, Rojas MC, Gong F, Hedden G, Tudzynski B. 2009. Isolation and characterization of the gibberellin biosynthetic gene cluster in Sphaceloma manihoticola. Applied Environmental Microbiology 74(17), 5325-5339. http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM.00694-08
Canellas LP, Façanha AR, Okorokaova-Façanha AL, Olivares FL. 2002. Humic acids isolated from earthworm compost enhance root elongation, lateral root emergence, and plasma membrane H+ -ATPase activity in maize roots. Plant Physiology 130, 1951-1957.
Chahrabarty SK, Gupta R. 2013. Gibberellic acid in plant: Still a mystery unresolved. Plant Signal Behavior 1, 8-9. https://doi.org/10.4161/psb.25504.
Cho K, Kim J, Kwon J, Lee JH, Lee JM, Lee IN, Rim S, Wha-Youl S. 2005. Isolation of Gibberillins- Producing Fungi from the Root of Several Sesamum indicum Plants. Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 15(1), 22-28.
Deng Z, Cao L. 2017. Fungal endophytes and their interactions with plants phytoremediation: A review. Chemosphere 168, 1100-1106. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2016.10.097
Gujar PD, Bhavsar KP, Khire JM. 2012. Effect of phytase from Aspergillus niger on plant growth and mineral assimilation in wheat (Triticum aestivum Linn.) and its potential for use as a soil amendment. Journal of the science of food and agriculture 93(9), 2242-2247.
Hamayun M, Khan A, Kim YH, Lee SM, Lee JH. 2011. Gibberellins producing endophytic Aspergillus fumigatus sp. LH02 influenced endogenous phytohormonal levels isoflavonoids production and plant growth in salinity stress. Process Biochemistry Journal 46, 440-447. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2017.00686.
Ibrahim MH, Ismail N, Nasiru A. 2013. Vermicomposting: Tool for sustainable ruminant manure management. Journal of Waste Management 20, 1-7. https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/732759
Joshi NV, Kelkar BV. 1952. The role of earthworms in soil fertility. Indian Journal of Agricultural Science 22, 189.
Khan AL, Hussain J, Al-Harrasi A, Al-Rawahi A, Lee IJ. 2015. Endophytic fungi: resource for gibberellins and crop abiotic stress resistance. Critical Review on Biotechnology 35, 62-74. https://doi.org/10.3109/07388551.2013.800018
Kaur J, Ledward, DA, Park RW, Robson RL. 1998. Factors affecting the heat resistance of Escherichia coli O157:H7. Letters in Applied Microbiology 26, 325- 330. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1472765X.1998.00339.x
Leitao AL, Enguita FJ. 2016. Gibberellins in Penicillium strains: challenges for endophyte-plant host interactions under salinity stress. Microbiology Research 183, 8-18. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micres.2015.11.004
Maiquez JA, Pineda FG, Valentino MJG. 2016. Auxin like activity of Fungi associated with Bamboo in Rice (Oryza sativa L.) International Journal of Biology, Pharmacy and allied Sciences 5(7), 1707-1716.
Sathya A, Vijayabharathi R. 2014.Plant Growth-Promoting Microbes from Herbal Vermicompost. Soil Biology 42, 71-88..
SilvaT, Attili-Angelis D, Carvalho AFA, Da Silva R, Boscolo M, Gomes E. 2005. Production of Saccharogenic and Dextrinogenic Amylases by Rhizomucor pusillus. The Journal of Microbiology 43(6), 561-568.
Tudzynski B. 2005. Gibberellin biosynthesis in fungi: genes, enzymes, evolution, and impact on biotechnology. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 66 (6), 597-611. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00253-004-1805-1
Yang T, Davies PJ, Reid JB. 1996. Genetic dissection of the relative roles of auxin and gibberellin in the regulation of stem elongation in intact light-grown peas. Plant Physiology 110, 1029-1034.