Welcome to International Network for Natural Sciences | INNSpub

Paper Details

Research Paper | January 1, 2016

VIEWS 2
| Download 1

Global Warming and Temperature Changes for Saudi Arabia

Ishtiaq Hassan, Abdul Razzaq Ghumman, Hashim Nisar Hashmi

Key Words:


J. Bio. Env. Sci.8(1), 179-191, January 2016

Certification:

JBES 2016 [Generate Certificate]

Abstract

This study aims at forecasting changes in temperature of the Saudi Arabia for the next hundred years. Temperature data of 38 years for thirteen stations in Saudi Arabia have been used as basis for this study. A Global Climate Model (GCM) has been applied to simulate temperatures by the end of the year 2100 for two scenarios namely a double carbon dioxide (2CO2) and a Modern_Predicted Sea Surface Temperature (MPSST) scenario. Temperature isotherms models, for twelve grids surrounding Saudi Arabia, have been prepared for annual and seasonal averages of each of the two scenarios by using the software “AutoCAD2000i”. Seasonal and annual averages have been extracted from these cited climate statistics and changes found by calculating the difference of the 2CO2 and MPSST values. It is found that the order (hottest remain the hottest and vice versa) of severity of the station temperatures will remain the same as being experienced for the present time. The overall change in land surface temperature for Saudi Arabia is a 4.72°C increase.

VIEWS 2

Copyright © 2016
By Authors and International Network for
Natural Sciences (INNSPUB)
http://innspub.net
This article is published under the terms of the Creative
Commons Attribution Liscense 4.0

Global Warming and Temperature Changes for Saudi Arabia

Abdul RG, Ishtiaq H, Qaiser-Uz-Zaman K, Mumtaz AK. 2013. Investigation of impact of environmental changes on precipitation pattern of Pakistan. Journal of Environment Monitoring Assessment 185, 4897–4905 p.

Ahn JB, Lee JI, ES. 2012. The reproducibility of surface air temperature over South Korea using dynamical downscaling and statistical correction. Journal of Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 90(4), 493–507, http://dx.doi.org/10.2151/jmsj.2012-404.

Bae DH, Jung IW, Lettenmaier DP. 2011. Hydrologic uncertainties in climate change from IPCC AR4 GCM simulations of the Chungju Basin, Korea. J. Hydrol. 401, 90–105.

Boyer C, Chaumont D, Chartier I, Roy AG. 2010. Impact of climate change on the hydrology of St. Lawrence tributaries. J. Hydrol. 384, 65–83, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2010.01.011.

Carter TR. 2007. General guidelines on the use of scenario data for climate impact and adaptation assessment. version 2; TGICA (IPCC).

Chou C, Neelin JD. 2004. Mechanism of global warming impacts on regional tropical precipitation. J. Climate 17, 2688-2701.

Gardner LR. 2009. Assessing the effect of climate change on mean annual runoff. J. Hydrol. 379, 351– 359, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2009.10.021.

Görgen K, Beersma J, Brahmer G, Buiteveld H, Carambia M, de Keizer O, Krahe P, Nilson E, Lammersen R, Perrin C, Volken D. 2010. Assessment of climate change impacts on discharge in the Rhine river basin. Results of the RheinBlick 2050 project.

Hansen J. 1983. Efficient Three-Dimensional Global Models for Climate Studies: Model I and II. NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center., Institute for space studies, New York, NY 10025; 3(4).

Hassan I, Ghumman AR. 2015. Application of Civil Engineering Softwares for Downscaling GCM Results. Int. Inv. J. Eng. Sci. Tech. 2(1), 1-9

Held IM, Soden BJ. 2006. Robust responses of the hydrological cycle to global warming. J. Climate, 19, 5686-5699.

Hua C, Chong-Yu Xu, Shenglian G. 2012. Comparison and evaluation of multiple GCMs, statistical downscaling and hydrological models in the study of climate change impacts on runoff. Journal of Hydrology 434–435 (2012) 36–45.

Huisjes M. 2006. Uncertainties in the impacts of Climate Change on extreme high Meuse discharges. Master’s thesis. Water Engineering and Management University of Twente, The Netherlands.

Ishtiaq H, Abdul RG, Hshim NH, Abdul SS. 2010. Investigation of the impact of global warming on precipitation pattern of Saudi Arabia. Civil Engineering and Environmental Systems, http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10286600903215060.

Ishtiaq H, Abdul RG, Hashim NH. 2011. Impact of Environmental Changes and Global Warming on Temperature in Pakistan. Mehran University Research Journal of Engineering & Technology, 30(1), Pages 1-14.

Jung IW, Bae DH, Lee BJ. 2012. Possible change in Korean streamflow seasonality based on multi-model climate projections. Hydrol. Process 13, 1033– 1045, http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hyp.9215.

Kang H, Park CK, Hameed SN, Ashok K. 2009. Statistical downscaling of precipitation in Korea using multimodel output variables as predictors. Mon. Weather Rev. 137, 1928–1938, http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/2008MWR2706.1.

Kay AL, Davies HN, Bell VA, Jones RG. 2009. Comparison of uncertainty sources for climate change impacts: flood frequency in England. Clim. Change, 92, 41–63,http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10584-008-9471-4.

Kazi R, Christophe E, Ana G, Chetan M, Martin B, Anthony L. 2014. Stream flow response to regional climate model output in the mountainous watershed: a case study from the Swiss Alps. Environ Earth Sci. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12665-014-3336-0

Ludwig R, May I, Turcotte R, Vescovi L, Braun M, Cyr JF, Fortin LG, Chaumont D, Biner S. 2009. The role of hydrological model complexity and uncertainty in climate change impact assessment. Adv. Geosci. 21, 63–71.

Mahdi A, Yuk FH, Teang SL. 2015. Recent Trends in Temperature and Precipitation in the Langat River Basin, Malaysia. Hindawi Publishing Corporation, Advances in Meteorology. 2015, Article ID 579437, 16 pages http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/579437

Minville M, Brissette F, Leconte R. 2008. Uncertainty of the impact of climate change on the hydrology of a nordic watershed. J. Hydrol. 358, 70– 83.

Muhammad R, Dostdar H, Ghulam R, Muhammad A, Ghulam R. 2015. Variations of surface temperature and precipitation in Gilgit-Baltistan (GB), Pakistan from 1955 to 2010. Journal of Biodiversity and Environmental Sciences (JBES) ISSN: 2220-6663 (Print), 2222-3045 6(2),67-73 p, 2015. (Online) http://www.innspub.net

Mustafa AM, Volkmar D, Broder M. 2014. Evaluation of the climate generator model CLIGEN for rainfall data simulation in Bautzen catchment area, Germany. Hydrology Research 45(4-5), 615– 630 ©IWA Publishing 2014 http://dx.doi.org/10.2166/nh.2013.073

Nicks AD, Lane JL. 1989. Weather generator. L. J. Lane, and M. A. Nearing, ed. NSERL Report No. 2. West Lafayette, Ind.: USDA–ARS National Soil Erosion Research Laboratory.

Ogunlade RD. 2008. Climate Change Mitigation. AR4 of IPCC.

Olsson T, Jakkila J, Veijalainen N, Backman L, Kaurola J, Vehviläinen B. 2015. Impacts of climate  change  on  temperature,  precipitation  and hydrology in Finland – studies using bias corrected Regional Climate Model data. Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 3217–3238, http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/hess-19-3217-2015.

Poulin A, Brissette F, Leconte R, Arsenault R, Malo JS. 2011. Uncertainty of hydrological modeling in   limate  change impact studies in a Canadian,  snowdominated  river  basin.  J.  Hydrol., 409, 626–636, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2011.08.057,2011.

Ramos P, Petisco E, Martín JM, Rodríguez E. 2013.  Downscaled  climate  change  projections  over Spain: application to water resources. International Journal of Water Resources Development 29(2), 201-218 p. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07900627.2012.721700.

Roudier P, Ducharne A, Feyen L. 2014. Climate change impacts on runoff in West Africa: a review. Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. 18, 2789-2801, http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/hess-18-2789-2014.

Sabyasachi S, Manikant V, Verma MK. 2015. Statistical trend analysis of monthly rainfall for Raipur District, Chhattisgarh. International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Studies, E-ISSN2249–8974. Proceedings of BITCON-2015 Innovations For National Development National Conference on Innovations In Civil Engineering.

Seiller G, Anctil F. 2014. Climate change impacts on the hydrologic regime of a Canadian river: comparing uncertainties arising from climate natural variability and lumped hydrological model structures. Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. 18, 2033–2047, 2014. www.hydrol-earth-syst-sci.net/18/2033/2014/, http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/hess-18-2033-2014.

Suchul K, Jina H, Joong-Bae A. 2014. Statistical downscaling  methods based  on APCC multi-model ensemble for seasonal prediction over South Korea. Int. J. Climatol. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/joc.3952.

Sutton RT, Dong B, Gregory JM. 2007. Land/sea warming ratio in response to climate change:IPCC AR4 model results and comparison with observations. Geophys. Res. Ltt. 34, L02701, http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2006GL028164.

Teng J, Vaze J, Chiew FHS, Wang B, Perraud JM. 2012. Estimating the Relative Uncertainties Sourced from GCMs and Hydrological Models in Modeling Climate Change Impact on Runoff. J. Hydrometeorol. 13, 122–139, http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/JHM-D-11-058.1,2012.

The Basic Guide to EdG CM. 2003-2009. Version 3.2, Columbia University, USA.

Vasiliades L, Loukas A, Patsonas G. 2009. Evaluation of a statistical downscaling procedure for the estimation of climate change impacts on droughts, Nat. Hazards. Earth Syst. Sci. 9, 879–894, http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/nhess-9-879-2009.

Velázquez JA, Schmid J, Ricard S, Muerth MJ, Gauvin SD, Minville B, Chaumont MD, Caya D, Ludwig R, Turcotte R. 2013. An ensemble approach to assess hydrological models’ contribution to  uncertainties  in  the  analysis  of  climate  change impact on water resources. Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. 17, 565–578, http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/hess-17-565-2013.

Vicuna S, Maurer EP, Joyce B, Dracup JA, Purkey D. 2007. The Sensitivity of California Water Resources to Climate Change Scenarios. J. Am. Water Resour. Assoc. 43, 482–498, http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1752-1688.2007.00038.x.

Wilks DS. 1999. Multisite downscaling of daily precipitation with a stochastic weather generator. Atmospheric Science group, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 USA.

Winsemius HC, Dutra E, Engelbrecht FA, Archer E, Van GW, Pappenberger F, Werner MGF. 2014. The potential value of seasonal forecasts in a changing climate in southern Africa. Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. 18, 1525–1538, http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/hess-18-1525-2014.

Xie SP, Desser C, Vecchi GA, Ma J, Teng H. Wittenberg AT. 2010. Global Warming Pattern Formation: Sea Surface Temperature and Rainfall. Journal of Climate 23, 966-986 p. http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/2009JCL13329.1.

SUBMIT MANUSCRIPT

Style Switcher

Select Layout
Chose Color
Chose Pattren
Chose Background