Groundnut rust disease epidemiology and potential sustainable management strategies

Paper Details

Review Paper 01/04/2020
Views (257) Download (13)

Groundnut rust disease epidemiology and potential sustainable management strategies

Magreth Francis, Musa Chacha, Ernest R. Mbega, Patrick A. Ndakidemi
Int. J. Biosci.16( 4), 524-536, April 2020.
Certificate: IJB 2020 [Generate Certificate]


Groundnut is an important food and cash crop for the majority of the world’s population. However, diseases have impeded groundnut cultivation in groundnut-growing regions. Of them, groundnut rust disease caused by Puccinia arachidis is one among the major diseases causing more than 50% economic yield losses. For decades, chemical pesticide application has been the most effective option for controlling groundnut in Tanzania rust disease. However, hazards associated with excessive usage of chemical pesticides and development of pathogen- resistance against pesticides has prompted intensive research on disease management alternatives that are effective and eco-friendly to the environment. Thus, this review will focus on groundnut rust disease etiology, epidemiology and expounds various management options with much emphasis on the potential of the selected pesticidal plant species (Azadirachta indica, Jatropha curcas, Parthenium hysterophorus and Moringa oleifera) in combatting the disease.


Adkins S, Shabbir A. 2014. Biology, ecology and management of the invasive Parthenium weed (Parthenium hysterophorus L.). Pest Management Science 70(7), 1023-1029.

Agrios GN. 2005. Plant Pathology. 5th Ed., Elsevier Academic Press, Amsterdam, New York, USA.

Ajay K, Shailesh J, Tripti M. 2013. Antimicrobial Potential of Parthenium hysterophorus Linn. Plant Extracts. Intern. Journal of Life science Biotechnology.and Pharmacy Research 2(3), 232-236.

Amit S, Sonal S, Rami U, Rajore S, Batra M. 2010. Broad-spectrum antimicrobial properties of medicinally important plant, Jatropha curcas L. International Journal Pharmacology Science Review and Research 4(3), 11-13.

Anyasor GN, Aina DA, Olushola MM, Aniyikaye AF. 2011. Phytochemical constituent, proximate analysis, antioxidant, antibacterial and wound healing properties of leaf extracts of Chromolaena odorata. Annual Biology Research 2, 441-451.

Atawodi SE, Atawodi JC. 2009. Azadirachta indica (Neem) a plant of microbial and pharmacological activity. Phytochemical Review 8, 601-620.

Aylor DE. 1990. The role of intermittent wind in the dispersal of fungal pathogens, Annual Review. Phytopathological 28, 73-92.

Bakhtiar M, Rashid K, Yasir A. 2012. Phytochemical and cytotoxic analysis of Parthenium hysterophorus selected from District Bannu, Pakistan. African Journal of Biotechnology 11(55), 11857-11860.

Bamishaiye EI, Olayemi FF, Awagu EF, Bamshaiye OM. 2011. Proximate and phytochemical composition of Moringa oleifera leaves at three stages of maturation. Advance Journal of Food Science Technology 3, 233-237.

Barsagade NB, Wagh GN. 2010. Comparative screening of leaf extracts of common plants and weeds for their antibacterial and antifungal activities. Asiatic Journal of Biotechnology. Resources 3, 227-232.

Biswas S, Dasgupta N, Bratati D. 2010. Antioxidant Activity of some Indian medicinal plants used for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Pharmacologyonline 3, 7-21

Bromfield KR. 1971. Peanut rust: a review of literature. Journal of American Peanut Research Education Association 3, 111-112.

Brown JF. 1980. The genetics of resistance in plants to infection by pathogens. Plant protection, pp. 267-275.

Chiteka ZA, Kucharek TA, Knauft DA, Gorbet DW, Shokes FM. 1988. Components of resistance to late leaf pots in peanut. I. Levels and variability-implications for selection. Peanut Science 15, 25-30.

Culbreath AK, Stevenson KL, Brenneman TB. 2002. Management of late leaf spot of peanut with benomyl and chlorothalonil: A study in preserving fungicide utility. Plant Disease 56, 349-355.

Das B, Das R. 1995. Chemical investigation in Parthenium hysteruphorus An-allelopathic plant. Allelopathy Journal 2(1), 99-104.

Davicino R, Mattar MA, Casali YA, Graciela S, Margarita E, Micalizzi B. 2007. Antifungal activity of plant extracts used in folk medicine in Argentina. Revista Peruana de Biología 14, 247-251.

Dharam V, Sharma RK. 1985. Efficacy of fungicides XXIX studies on the fungicidal properties of neem oil. Indian Journal of Plant Pathology 3, 241-242.

Duke JA. 1988. CRC. Handbook of Medicinal Herbs. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, p. 253-254.

EPPO. 2018. PQR database. Paris: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization.

Eriyanto Y, Alfi I. 2016. Methanolic extracts of three weeds as botanical fungicides to control peanut rust disease. Nusant Ara Bioscience 8(1), 117-122.

Fuglie LJ. 2001. The Miracle Tree: Moringa Oleifera: natural nutrition for the tropics, (Church World Service, Dakar, 1999). pp: 68. Revised in 2001 and published as The Miracle Tree: The Multiple Attributes of Moringa, p. 172

Ganie SA, Mudasser Z. Surender SG, Surender SY, Ranjana S, Sujata G. 2015. Antifungal Efficacy of Moringa oleifera Lam. American Journal of Phytomedicine and Clinical Therapeutics 3(1), 28-33.

Ghewande MP. 2009. Rust of groundnut an overview. In: Upadhyay RK, Mukherji KG, Chamola BP, Dubey OP (Eds) Integrated pest and disease management. APH Publishing Corp., New Delhi, pp 326-334, 110012, India.

Ghosh PK, Dayal D. 1998. Effect of varying levels of nitrogen in three groundnut-based intercropping systems. In: Proceeding of the International Conference on Food Security and Crop Science, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hissar, India, p. 133.

Govindasamy V, Balasubramanian R. 1989. Biological control of groundnut rust, Puccinia arachidis, by Trichoderma harzianum. Journal of Plant Diseases and Protection 96, 337-341.

Gupta N, Martin BM, Metcalfe DD, Rao PV. 1996. Identification of a novel hydroxyproline-rich glycoprotein as the major allergen in Parthenium pollen. The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 98, 903-912.

Harsha M, Santosh G, Sharda S. 2011. Antimicrobial and spermicidal activities of Parthenium hysterophorus Linn. and Alstonia scholaris Linn. Indian Journal of Natural Products and Research 2(4), 458-463.

Hennen JF, Subhramanyam P, Figueiredo MB. 1987. The taxonomy, life history & evolution of Puccinia arachidis Speg., Proceedings of a discussion group meeting on Groundnut Rust Disease held at ICRISAT Centre, Pattencheru, A.P. India, 24-28 Sep. 1984.

Henning RK. 2007. Jatropha curcas L. in H. A. M. van der Vossen and G. S. Mkamilo, (Eds.). Prota 11(1): Medicinal plants/Plantes médicinales. Plant Resources of Tropical Africa (PROTA), Wageningen, Netherlands.

Hossain MA, Al-Toubi WAS, Weli AM, Al-Riyami QA, Al-Sabahi JN. 2013. Identification and characterization of chemical compounds in different crude extracts from leaves of Omani neem. Journal of Taibah University for Science 7(4), 181-188.

Hossain MA, Shah MD, Sakari M. 2011. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of various organic extracts of Merremia borneensis from Sabah. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine 4(8), 637-641.

Igbinosa OO, Igbinosa EOA. 2009. Antimicrobial activity and phytochemical screening of stem bark extract of Jatropha curcas Linin. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 3(2), 055-062

Ivan S. 2000. Short-distance dispersal of wheat rust spores by wind and rain. Agronomie 20, 757-767

Izge AU, Mohammed ZH, Goni A. 2007. Levels of variability in groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) to Cercospora leaf spot disease-Implication for selection. African Journal of Agriculture Research 2, 182-186.

Jabeen R, Shahid MA, Jamil A, Ashra M. 2008. Microscopic evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of seed extracts of Moringa oleifera. Pakistan Journal Botany 40, 1349-1358.

Johnson R. 1979. The concept of durable resistance. Phytopathology 69, 198-199.

Joseph B, Raj SJ. 2010. Pharmacognostic and phytochemical properties of Aloe vera Linn: an overview. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Science 4(2), 106-110.

Kishore GK, Pande S. 2005. Integrated management of late leaf spot and rust diseases o groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) with Prosopis juliflora leaf extracts and Chlorothalonil. International Journal of Pest Management. 51(4), 325-332.

Kokate C, Purohit AP, Gokhale SB. 2010. Pharmacognosy. Maharashtra, India: Nirali Prakashan; Alternative Medicine 13(120), 1-9.

MAFC. Agricultural Statistics 2010. Agricultural Basic Data.

Mahmood KT, Tahira M, Ikram UH. 2010. Moringa oleifera: a natural gift. Journal of Pharmacetical Science and Research 2(11), 775-781.

Mallaiah KV, Rao AS. 1979. Groundnut rust: factors influencing disease development, sporulation and germination of uredospores. Indian Journal of Phytopathology 32, 382-388.

Mansoor H. 2012. Grain Legumes Strategy for Tanzania. Presented at N2Africa workshop Tanzania, 6 and 7 November 2012.

Mayee CD. 1983. Epidemiology and forecasting of groundnut rust in Marathwada region: final report. Parbhani, Maharashtra, India: Marathwada Agricultural University, pp.76

McConnachie AJ, Strathie LW, Mersie W, Gebrehiwot L, Zewdie K. 2011. Current and potential geographical distribution of the invasive plant Parthenium hysterophorus (Asteraceae) in eastern and southern Africa. Weed Research 51(1), 71-84.

Meena B, Radhajeyalakshmi R, Marimuthu T,  Vidhyasekaran P, Velazhahan R. 2010. Biological control of Groundnut Late Leaf Spot and rust by seed treatment and foliar applications of a Powder Formulation of Pseudomonas fluorescens. Biocontrol Science and Technology 12, 2.

Mehan VK, Reddy PM, Subramanyam P, McDonald D, Singh AK. 1996. Identification of new sources of resistance to rust and late leaf spot in peanut. International Journal of Pest Management 42, 267-271.

Mohammad MS, Forough M. 2007. Investigation of Compounds from Azadirachta indica (Neem). Asian Journal of Plant Science 6, 444-445.

Monyo ES, Osiru MO, Kadyampakeni D, Mponda O, Chinyamunyamu B. 2009. Improving Food Security and Nutrition in Malawi and Tanzania through Research on Edible Legumes. Proceedings of Stakeholder Workshops on Groundnut Production in Malawi and Tanzania held 1-2 March and 13 April 2007, Lilongwe (Malawi) and Mtwara (Tanzania).

Mordue AJ, Nisbet AJ. 2000. Azadirachtin from the neem tree Azadirachta indica: Its action against insects, Anais da Sociedade Entomol´ogica do Brasil 29(4), 615-632.

Mponda OK, Kafiriti EM. 2008. Jinsi ya kuzalisha Mbegu Bora za Karanga (Production of Improved Groundnut Variety Seeds). Naliendele Agricultural Research Institute, Mtwara, pp.17.

Muklesur R, Siti HA, Mahmud TMM, Mohamad ZAR. 2011. Extraction of Jatropha curcas fruits for antifungal activity against anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides) of papaya. African Journal of Biotechnology 10(48), 9796-9799.

Ndakidemi PA, Dakora FD. 2003. Legume seed flavonoids and nitrogenous metabolites as signals and protectants in early seedling development. Functional Plant Biology 30, 729-745.

Nduagu C, Ekefan EJ, Nwankiti AO. 2008. Effect of some crude plant extracts on growth of Colletotrichum capsici (Synd) Butler & Bis by, causal agent of pepper anthracnose. Journal of Applied Bioscience 6, 184-190.

Nkya JW, Paul E, Deusdedit K, Musa C. 2014. In vitro evaluation of antifungal activity of Moringa oleifera Lam extracts against coffee wilt pathogen, Gibberella xylarioides Heim and Saccas. American Journal of Research Communication 2(12), 53-62.

Obasi LN, Madus P, Ejikeme C, Egbuonu AC. 2011. Antimicrobial and phytochemical activity of methanolic extract and its fractions of Jatropha curcas Linn stem bark. African Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry 5(5), 91-96.

Oluduro AO. 2012. Evaluation of antimicrobial properties and nutritional potentials of Moringa oleifera Lam. leaf in South-Western Nigeria. Malaysian Journal of Microbiology 8, 59-67.

Oskoueian E, Abdullah N, Ahmad SWZ, Saad WZ, AR, Omar AR, Ho YW. 2011. Bioactive compounds and biological activities of Jatropha curcas L. kernel meal extract. International Journal of Molecular Science 12(9), 5955-70.

Pal KK, McSpadden GB. 2006. Biological Control of Plant Pathogens. The Plant Health Instructor DOI: 10.1094/PHI-A-2006-1117-02.

Palti J. 1981. Cultural practices and Jectiaus crop diseases. Springer, Verlag,

Pande S, Bandyopadhyay R, Blümmel M, Narayana RJ, Thomas D, Navi SS. 2003. Disease management factors influencing yield and quality of sorghum and groundnut crop residues. Field Crops Research 84(1-2), 89-103.

Pande S, Rao NJ. 2001. Resistance of wild Arachis species to late leaf spot and rust in greenhouse trials. Plant Disease 85, 851-855.

Pandey MK, Monyo E, Ozias-Akins P, Liang X, Guimarães P, Nigam SN. 2012. Advances in Arachis genomics for peanut improvement Patancheru, Andhra Pradesh, India: International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics 96, 978-92.

Papavizas GC, Lewis JA. 1988. The use of fungi in integrated control of plant diseases. In: Burge MN, editor. Fungi in biological control systems. Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press, pp. 235-253.

Papavizas GC. 1985. Trichoderma and Gliocladium: Biology, ecology and potential for biocontrol. Annual Review of Phytopathology 23, 23-54.

Pareek A, Suthar M, Rathore GS, Bansal V. 2011. Feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium L.): A systematic review. Pharmacognosy Reviews 5, 103-110.

Patel VA, Vaishnav MV. 1987. Assessment of losses in groundnut due to rust and tikka leaf spots in Gujrat., Gujarat Agricultural University, Sardar Krushinagar. Research Journal 12, 52-53.

Philipo M, Nchimbi-Msolla S. 2019. Effect of Watering Regimes on Yield and Agronomic Traits of Exotic Groundnut Genotypes in Tanzania. Journal of Advances in Biology and Biotechnology 21(2), 1-6.

Prasad DMR, Amirah I, Md. Maksudur RK. 2012. Jatropha curcas: Plant of medical benefits. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research 6(14), 2691-2699.

Ramadass N, Subramanian N. 2018. Study of phytochemical screening of neem (Azadirachta indica). International Journal of Zoology Studies 3(1), 209-212.

Rao PVS, Subrahmanyam P, McDonald D. 1994. Effect of Temperature on Urediniospore Production and Germinability in Puccinia arachidis. Peanut Science 21, 79-81.

Rukhsana B, Afia K, Tabinda SC. 2003. Antifungal Activity of Allelopathic Plant Extracts III. Growth Response of Some Pathogenic Fungi to Aqueous Extract of Parthenium hysterophorus. Pakistan Journal of plant Pathology 2(3), 145-156.

Saetae D, Suntornsuk W. 2010. Antifungal activities of ethanolic extract from Jatropha curcas seed cake.  Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 20(2), 319-324.

Sahayaraj K, Borgio JAF, Raju G. 2009. Antifungal activity of three fern extracts on causative agents of groundnut early leaf spot and rust diseases. Journal of Plant Protection Research 49(2), 141-144

Sairam TV. 1999. Home remedies, Volume II: A Handbook of Herbal Cures for Commons Ailments. New Delhi, India: Penguin.

Sankar NS, Dipak P. 2014. Antioxidant potentials of Parthenium hysterophorus L. leaf extracts. Scientific Research Journal of India 3(2), 80-86.

Savary S, Janeau JL, 1986. Rain-induced dispersal in Puccinia arachidis, studied by means of a rainfall simulator. Netherland Journal of Plant Pathology   92, 163-174.

Savary S. 1985. Effets du niveau de contamination et de la temperature sur quelques e’tapes du developpement de Puccinia arachidis Sveg. Aeronomie 5, 479-485.

Sesha SDM, Satyavathi K, Bhojaraju P. 2013. Cytotoxic and Anthelmintic Activities of Methanolic Extract of Parthenium Hysterophorus L. Pharmacophore 4(6), 275-279.

Shabbir A, Bajwa R. 2006. Distribution of parthenium weed (Parthenium hysterophorus L.), an alien invasive weed species threatening the biodiversity of Islamabad. Weed Biology and Management 6(2), 89-95.

Shrivastava DK, Kshma S. 2014. Antifungal Activity of leaf extract of Neem (Azadirachta Indica Linn). International Journal of Current Microbiology Applied Science 3(5), 305-308.

Sill WH. 1982. Plant protection-an integrated interdisciplinary approach. State University Press, Ames, Iowa.

Singh M, Singh RP. 1997. Potato virus Y detection: Sensitivity of RT-PCR depends on the size of fragment amplified. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology-Revue Canadienne De Phytopathologie 19, 149-155.

Singh P, Srivastava D. 2013. Phytochemical screening and in vitro antifungal investigation of Parthenium hysterophorus extracts against Alternalia alternate. International Journal of Pharmacology 4(7), 190-193.

Sofowora A. 1993. Medicinal Plants and Traditional Medicine in Africa. Spectrum Books Ltd., Ibadan, Nigeria, pp. 191-289.

Subrahmanyam P, Hammons RO, Nigam SN, McDonald D, Gibbons RW, Fan MY, and Yeh WL. 1983a. International cooperative screening for resistance of peanut to rust and late leaf spot. Plant Diseases 67, 1108-1111.

Subrahmanyam P, McDonald D, Subba Rao PV. 1983. Influence of host genotype on uredospore production and germinability in Puccinia arachidis. Phytopathology 73, 726-729.

Subrahmanyam P, McDonald D. 1980. Groundnut rust-Its survival and carry-over in India. Proceeding India Academic Science 91, 93-100.

Subrahmanyam P, McDonald D. 1983. Rust Disease of Groundnut. in: Information bulletin no. 13. International Crop Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT). Patancheru, Anhra Pradesh, India.

Subrahmanyam P, McDonald D. 1987. Groundnut rust disease: Epidemiology and control. In: Groundnut Rust Disease: Proc Discuss Group Meet. 24-28 September, 1984, ICRISAT, Patancheru, AP 502324, India. p 27-39.

Subrahmanyam P, Reddy LJ, Gibbons RW, McDonald D. 1985. Peanut rust: A major threat to peanut production in semiarid tropics. Plant Disease 69, 813-819.

Subrahmanyam P. 1995. Screening methods and sources of resistance to rust and late leaf spot of groundnut. Report No. 9290663197. Pages 1-14. International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics, Andhra Pradesh, India.

Subrahmanyam P. 1997. Rust. Pages 31-33 in: Compendium of Peanut Diseases. N. Kokalis-Burelle, D. M. Porter, R. Rodriguez-Kabana, D. H. Smith and P. Subrahmanyam, Eds. American Phytopathological Society, St. Paul, MN.

Sukanya SL, Sudisha J, Hariprasad P. 2009. Antimicrobial activity of leaf extracts of Indian medicinal plants against clinical and phytopathogenic bacteria. African Journal of Biotechnology 8(23), 6677-6682.

Sunkad G, Kulkarni S. 2007. Studies on perpetuation and carryover of groundnut rust (Puccinia arachidis Speg.) in Northern Karnataka. Karnataka Journal of Agriculture Science 20, 297-300.

Thurston HD. 1992. Sustainable practices for plant disease management in farming systems. Westview Press, Boulder, Colorado.

Ulbrich CW. 1983. Natural variations in the analytical form of the raindrop size distribution. Journal Climate Applied Meteorology 22, 1764-1765.

USDA. 2003. Report on the status of Arachis germplasm in the United States. United States Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service.

Zida PE, Sérémé LP, Sankara V, Somda PI, Néya A. 2008. Importance of seed-borne fungi of sorghum and pearl millet in Burkina Faso and their control using plant extracts. Pakistan Journal of Biological Science 11, 321-331.

Zunera Z, Shazia S, Sobiya S, Tahir M. 2012. Antifungal potential of Parthenium hysterophorus L. plant extracts against Fusarium solani. Scientific Research and Essays 7(22), AA 2049-2054.