Growth-climate correlation of himalayan pine (Pinus wallichiana) from ganji forest skardu districts of Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan

Paper Details

Research Paper 01/08/2014
Views (130) Download (8)

Growth-climate correlation of himalayan pine (Pinus wallichiana) from ganji forest skardu districts of Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan

Muhammad Akbar, Moinuddin Ahmed, Muhammad Usama Zafar, Alamdar Hussain, Sujjad Hyder, Shaukat ali, Fasial Hussain, Muhammad Raza, Ghulam Raza, Karamat Ali, Haibat Ali
J. Bio. Env. Sci.5( 2), 405-412, August 2014.
Certificate: JBES 2014 [Generate Certificate]


Ring-width chronology of 211 years (AD 1730-2010) was developed using Himalayan Pine (Pinus wallichiana) collected from Ganji Skardu mono-specific Pinus wallichiana forest near the mix forest of Pinus wallichiana, Juniperus excelsa and Betula utilis on different aspect and slope angle. Chronology statistics showed that Pinus wallichiana have the past climate signal. Strong correlation has been observed between tree growth and previous November temperature indicating that winter warmth is the main factor responsible for tree growth. Correlation analysis between tree ring chronology and grid data also indicates that summer temperature and precipitation is useful for tree growth. More sample collection would prove better results.


Ahmed M. 1988. Problems encountered in age estimation of forest tree species.Pakistan Journal of Botany 1, 143–145.

Ahmed M. 1989. Tree-ring chronologies of Abies pindrow (Royle) Spach. From Himalayan regions of Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Botany 2, 347–354.

Ahmed M, Wahab M, Khan N. 2010a. Dendrochronological potential of pine tree species of Pakistan. International Journal of Biology and Biotechnology 3, 159-174.

Ahmed M, Khan N, Wahab M, Zafar U, Palmer J. 2012. Climate/ growth correlations of tree species in the Indus basin of the Karakorum range, north Pakistan. IAWA Journal, 1, 51-61.

Ahmed M, Naqvi, SH. 2005.Tree-ring chronology of Picea smithiana (Wall.)Boiss,and its quantitative vegetation description from Himalayan region of Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Botany 3, 697–707.

Ahmed  M,  Sarangzai AM.  1991a. Dendrochronological approach to estimate ageand growth rate of various species from Himalayan region of Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Botany 1, 78–89.

Ahmed    M,    Sarangzai AM.    1991b. Dendrochronological potential of a few treespecies from Himalayan region of Pakistan, a preliminary investigation. PakistanJournal of Pure and Applied Sciences 2, 65–72.

Ahmed M, Wahab M, Khan N. 2009b. Dendroclimatic investigation in Pakistan using Picea smithiana (Wall) Boiss.—preliminary results. Pakistan Journal ofBotany 5, 2427–2435.

Ahmed M, Wahab M, Khan N, Siddiqui MF, Khan MU, Hussain ST. 2009a. Ageand growth-rates of some gymnosperms in Pakistan—a dendrochronologicalapproach. Pakistan Journal of Botany 2, 849–860.

Ahmed M, Wahab M, Khan N, Zafar U, Palmer J. 2010b.Tree- ring chronologies from upper Indus Basin of Karakorum range, Pakistan. Pakistan. Journal of Botany , 42(SI): 295-307.

Ahmed, M, Palmer J, Khan N, Wahab M, Fenwick P, Esper J,Cook E. 2011. Dendroclimatic Potential of conifers from Northern Pakistan. Dendrochronologia, 2, 77-88.

Cook ER. 1985. A time series analysis approach to tree-ring standardization. PhD. Dissertation, University of Arizona, Tucson, 171.

Esper J, Bosshard A, Schweingruber FH, Winiger M. 1995.Tree-rings from the upper timberline in the Karakorum as climatic indicators for the last 1000 years.Dendrochronologia 13, 79–88.

Esper J. 2000. Long term tree-ring variations in junipers at the upper timberline in the Karakorum Pakistan. The Holocene 10, 253–260.

Fritts HC. 1976. Tree Rings and Climate. Academic Press Inc., New York, 567 .

Grissino-Mayer HD. 1993. An updated list of species used in tree-ring research. Tree-ring Bulletin 53, 17–43.

Hepting GH. 1945. Reserve food storage in shortleaf pine in relation to little-leaf disease.Phytopathology 35, 106–119.

Holmes R. 1992. Dendrochronology Program Library, Version 1992–1. Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona.

Holmes RL. 1983. Computer-assisted quality control in tree-ring dating and measurement.Tree-ring Bulletin 43, 69–78.

Khan N, Ahmed M, Wahab M. 2008. Dendroclimatic potential of Picea smithiana (wall) Boiss. From Afghanistan Pakistan Journal of Botany 3, 1063-1070.

Kramer PJ. 1958. The Physiology of Forest Trees (ed.) The Ronald Press Co, New York,156–186.

Singh J, Yadav RR. 2007. Dendroclimatic potential of millennium-long ring-widthchronology of Pinus gerardiana from Himachal Pradesh, India. Current Science 6, 833–837

Stokes MA, Smiely TL. 1968. An introduction to tree-ring dating .University of Chicago, Press, Chicago, 73.

Treydte K S, Schlesr GH, Helle G, Frank DC, Winige M, Hang GH, Esper J. 2006. The twentieth century was the wettest period in northern Pakistan over the past millennium. Nature 27, 1179-1182.

Wigley TML, Briffa KR, Jones PD. 1984. On the average value of correlated timeseries with applications in dendroclimatology and hydrometeorology. Journal of Climate and Applied Meteorology 23, 201–213.

Yadav R R, Park WK, Battacharyyar A , Park WK. 1997b. Climate and Growth relationship in blue Pine (Pinus wallichiana ) from the western Himalaya. India .Korean Journal of Ecology 2, 95-102

Zafar MU, Ahmed M, Farooq MA, Akbar M, Hussain A. 2010. Standardized Tree Ring Chronologies of Picea smithiana from Two New Sites of Northern Area Pakistan. World Applied Sciences Journal 12, 1531-1536.