Welcome to International Network for Natural Sciences | INNSpub

Paper Details

Research Paper | July 1, 2016

| Download 1

Growth responses of Solanum melongena L. treated with Carica papaya L. crude latex extract at different concentrations

Jeana S. Macalood, Helen J. Vicent, Jessie G. Gorospe, Renato D. Boniao, Elnor C. Roa, Maria Luisa S. Orbita

Key Words:

Int. J. Biosci.9(1), 178-202, July 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12692/ijb/9.1.178-202


IJB 2016 [Generate Certificate]


Carica papaya latex is reported to be insecticidal, bacteriocidal, molluscicidal and fungicidal which are beneficial in agriculture. A complete randomized design (CRD) experiment was conducted to determine the growth responses of Solanum melongena treated with Carica papaya crude latex extract at different concentrations. Field results show that the mean stem height (sh) was 40.7 cm trial 1 (T1) antifungal activity (AFA) and 35.0 cm (T3) for larvicidal activity (LA); stem diameter (sd) was 3.2 cm (T3 and T5) for AFA and 3.1 cm (T4, T3 and T2) for LA. The total number of leaves (L) were 122 (T1: AFA) and 100 (T2: LA). For AFA, the mean number of damaged or infested leaves (diL) was 3.0 for T2, T3 and T5 and 2.0 for all treatments in LA. The mean number of damaged or infested shoots (dish) was 2 (T5) for AFA and 1 for all treatments for LA. The total means number of flowers (fl) were 3 flowers for AFA and 2 flowers for LA. The mean number of fruits (ft) yielded 7ft with only 3 marketable fruits (Mft) for AFA (T2) and 1 Mft for LA (T1, T3 and T4). The mean fruit weights (Wft) were 30.56 g for AFA (T2) and 11.11 g for LA (T3 and T4). Carica papaya crude latex extract could potentially mitigate S. melongena pests such as L. orbonalis larvae (as larvicide) and A. niger (as fungicide) based on the results.


Copyright © 2016
By Authors and International Network for
Natural Sciences (INNSPUB)
This article is published under the terms of the Creative
Commons Attribution Liscense 4.0

Growth responses of Solanum melongena L. treated with Carica papaya L. crude latex extract at different concentrations

Adebanjo A, Onisirosan PJ. 1986. Surface borne infection of Dioscorea alata tubers by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Journal of Plant Protection in the Tropics 3(2), 135-137.

Adu OA, Akingboye KA, Akinfemi A. 2009. Potency of pawpaw (Carica papaya) latex as an anthelmintic in poultry production. Botany Research International 2(3), 139-142.

Ahmad H, Rahman MH, Haque MA, Ahmed KS. 2009. Studies on shoot and leaf characters of brinjal plants and their quantitative relationships with brinjal shoot and fruit borer. Journal of the Bangladesh Agricultural University 7(1), 29–32. http://dx.doi.org/10.3329/jbau.v7i1.4794

Alam MZ, Sana DL. 1962. Biology of the brinjal shoot and fruit borer, Leucinodes orbonalis G. (Pyralidae: Lepidoptera) in East Pakistan. The Scientist 5, 13-24.

Alam MZ. 1970. Insect pest of vegetables and their control in Bangladesh. Agricultural Information Service. Dacca, Bangladesh. 132.

Alam SN, Rashid MA, Rouf FMA, Jhala RC, Patel JR, Satpathy S, Shivalingaswamy TM, Rai S, Wahundeniya I, Cork A, Ammaranan C, Talekar S. 2003. Development of an integrated pest management strategy for eggplant fruit and shoot borer in South Asia. Shanhua, Taiwan: AVRDC—the World Vegetable Center Technical Bulletin No. 28. Asian Vegetable Research and Development Centre, Publication No. 03-548, 56.

Ali MI, Ali MS, Rahman MS. 1980. Field evaluation of wilt disease and shoot and fruit borer attack of different cultivars of brinjal. Bangladesh journal of agricultural sciences 7(2), 193-194.

Allen TC. 1947. Supression of insect damage by means of plant hormones. Journal of Economic Entomology 40, 814-817.

Anil A, Sharma PC. 2010. Bioefficacy of insecticides against Leucinodes orbonalis on brinjal. Journal of Environmental Biology 31(4), 399-402.

Anonymous. 2010. Management of fruit and shoot borer in brinjal, The Hindu News Paper.

Baldwin IT, Preston CA. 1999. The eco-physiological complexity of plant responses to insect herbivores. Planta 208, 137–145. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s004250050543

Barkai-Golan R.  2001.  Postharvest  diseases  of fruits and vegetables. Development and Control. Elsevier Science 320–329. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/b978-044450584-2/50001-0

Begum N, Sharma B, Pandey RS. 2013. Calotropisprocera and Annona squamosa: Potential alternatives to chemical pesticides. British Journal of Applied Science & Technology 3(2), 254-267.

Blanto CM, Ewel JJ. 1985. Leaf cutting ant herbivory in successional and agricultural tropical ecosystems. Ecological Society of America 66, 861-69. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1940548

Butani DK, Jotwani MG. 1984. Insects in vegetables. Periodical Expert Book Agency, India pp. 4-293.

Carter W. 1973. Insects in relation to plant disease. 2nd ed. John Wiley and Sons, New York. 759.

Chen NC, Kalb T, Talekar NS, Wang JF, Ma CH. 2002. Suggested cultural practices for eggplant. Asian Vegetable Research and Development Center Training Guide. Eggplant. Asian Vegetable Research and Development Center.

Collonnier R, Fock I, Kashyap V, Rotino GL, Daunay MC, Lian Y, Mariska IK, Rajam MV, Servaes A, Ducreux G, Sihachakr D. 2001. Applications of biotechnology in eggplant. Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture 65, 91-107. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1010674425536

Crawley MJ. 1985. Reduction of oak fecundity by low density herbivore populations. Nature 314, 163-164.http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/314163a0

Crawley MJ. 1989. Insect hervibores and plant population dynamics. Annual Review of Entomology 34, 531-564.http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.en.34.010189.002531

De Lucca AJ. 2007. Harmful fungi in both agriculture and medicine. Revista lberoamericana de Micología 24, 3-13.

Dieleman FL. 1969. Effects of gall midge infestation on plant growth and growth regulating substances. Entomologia Experimentaliset Applicata 12, 745–749. http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1111/j.1570-7458.1969.tb02568.x

Dubois T, Jacquet A, Schnek AG, Looze Y. 1988. The thiol proteinases from the latex of Carica papaya L. I. Fractionation, purification and preliminary characterization. Biological Chemistry Hoppe Seyler 369, 733–740.

Dussourd DE, Eisner T. 1987. Vein-cutting behaviour: insect counterplay to the latex defense of plants. Science 237, 898–901.

El Moussaoui A, Nijs M, Paul C, Wintjens R, Vincentelli J, Azarkan M, Looze Y. 2001. Revisiting the enzymes stored in the laticifers of Carica papaya in the context of their possible participation in the plant defense mechanism. Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences 58, 556–570. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/PL00000881

Gapud VP, Canapi BL. 1994. Preliminary survey of insects of onions, eggplant and string beans in San Jose, Nueva Ecija. Philippines Country Report, Insect and Mite Pest Management. CRSP – First Annual Report.

Gibson RW, Whitehead D, Austin DJ, Simkins J. 1976. Prevention of potato leaf roll by aphicide and its effect on leaf area and photosynthesis. Annals of Applied Biology 82, 151-153.

Goeden RD, Kok LT. 1986. Comments on a proposed “new” approach for selecting agents for the biological control of weeds. The Canadian Entomologist 11(8), 51- 58. http://dx.doi.org/10.4039/Ent11851-1

Gradwell G. 1974. The effect of defoliators on tree growth. pp. 182-93. In: Morris, M. G., and F. H. Perring. eds. The British Oak, Classey, Faringdon, UK.

Gravel V, Hani Antoun H, Russell T. 2007. Growth stimulation and fruit yield improvement of greenhouse tomato plants by inoculation with Pseudomonas putida or Trichoderma atroviride: Possible role of indole acetic acid (IAA). Soil Biology and Biochemistry 39, 1968–1977. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2007.02.015

Gutleb AC, Morrison E, Murk AJ. 2002. Cytotoxicity assays for mycotoxins produced by Fusarium strains: A review. Environmental toxicology and pharmacology 11, 309-320.

Guy St-Germain BS, Summerbell R. 1999. Identifying filamentous fungi. Belmont, Star Publishing Co.

Harris P. 1986. Biological control of weeds. Fortschritte der Zoologie 32, 123-38.

Heichel GH, Turner NC. 1984. Branch growth and leaf numbers of red maple (Acer rubrum L.) and red oak  (Quercus  rubra  L.):  Response  to  defoliation. Oecologia 62, 1-6. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00377364

Hewett EW. 1977. Some effects of infestation on plants: A physiological viewpoint. The New Zealand Entomologist 6(3), 235-243. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00779962.1977.9722257

Ikotun T. 1983. Post-harvest microbial rot of yams in Nigeria. Fitopathologia Brasileira 8, 1-7.

Ioos R, Belhadj A, Menez M. 2004. Occurrence and distribution of Microdochium nivale and Fusarium species isolated from barley, durum and soft wheat grains in France from 2000 to 2002. Mycopathologia 158, 351-362. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11046-004-2228-3

Islam MN, Karim MA. 1994. Integrated management of the brinjal shoot and fruit borer, Leucinodesorbonalis Guenee at Joydebpur. pp. 41-42. In: Annual Research Report, 1993-94. Entomology Division, BARI, Joydebpur, Gazipur, Bangladesh.

Javed H, Ul-Mohsin A, Aslam, Naeem M, Amjad M, Mahmood T. 2011. Relationship between morphological characters of different aubergine cultivars and fruit infestation by Leucinodesorbonalis Guenee. Pakistan Journal of Botany 43(4), 2023-2028.

Kamalkumar R, Amutha R, Muthulaksmi S, Mareeswari P, Baby Rani W. 2007. Screening of dioecious papaya hybrids for papain yield and enzyme activity. Research Journal of Agriculture and Biological Sciences 3(5), 447-449.

Kappel F, Proctor JTA. 1986. Simulated spotted tentiform leafminer injury and its influence on growth and fruiting of apple trees. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science 3 (1), 64-69.

Kinsman S, Platt WJ.  1984.  The  impact  of  a herbivore upon Mirabilis hirsuta, a fugitive prairie plant. Oecologia 65, 2-6. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00384454

Knight SC, Anthony VM, Brady AM, Greenland AJ, Heaney SP, Murray DC, Powell KA, Schulz MA, Spinks CA, Worthington PA, Youle B. 1997. Rationale and perspectives on the development of fungicides. Annual review of phytopathology 35, 349-372. DOI: 10.1146/annurev.phyto.35.1.349

Konno K, Hirayama C, Nakamura M, Tateishi K, Tamura Y, Hattori M, Kohno K. 2004. Papain protects papaya trees from herbivorous insects: role of cysteine proteases in latex. The Plant journal 37, 370-378.

Luque J, Cohen M, Savè R, Biel C, Alvarez IF. 1999. Effects of three fungal pathogens on water relations, chlorophyll fluorescence and growth of Quercus suber L. Annals of Forest Science 56 (1), 19-26. http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/forest:19990103

Macalood JS, Vicente HJ, Boniao RD, Gorospe JG, Roa EC. 2013. Chemical analysis of Carica papaya L. crude latex. American Journal of Plant Sciences 4, 1941-1948. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/ajps.2013.410240

Magioli C, Mansur E. 2005. Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.): tissue culture, genetic transformation and use as an alternative model plant. Acta Botanica Brasilica 19(1), 139-148. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0102-33062005000100013

Mall NP, Pandey RS, Singh SV, Singh SK. 1992. Seasonal incidence of insect-pests and estimation of the losses caused by shoot and fruit borer on brinjal. Indian Journal of Entomology 54(3), 241 – 247.

Marquis RJ. 1984. Leaf herbivores decrease fitness of a tropical plant. Science 226, 537 39. http://dx.doi.orh/10.1126/science.226.4674.537

Maureal AM, Noriel LM, Esguerra NM. 1982. Life history and behaviour of eggplant fruit borer. Annals of Tropical Research 4(3), 178.

Mehto DN, Singh K M, Singh RN, Prasad D. 1983. Biology of brinjal shoot and fruit borer, Leucinodes orbonalis Guen. Bulletin of Entomology 24(2), 112 -115.

Monti R, Basilio CA, Trevisan HC, Contiero J. 2000. Purification of papain from fresh latex of Carica papaya.Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology 43(5), 501-507. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1516-89132000000500009

Naresh JS, Malik VS, Balan JS, Khokhar KS. 1986. A new record of Trathala sp., a larval endoparasite attacking brinjal fruit borer, Leucinodes orbonalis Guenee. Bulletin of Entomology (New Delhi) 27(1), 74.

Narinesingh D, Maraj RM. 1989. Solar drying characteristics of papaya (Carica papaya) latex. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 175–186.http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.2740460205

Nitsawang SA, RajniHatti-Kaul RB, Kanasawuda P. 2006. Purification of papain from Carica papaya latex: Aqueous two-phase extraction versus two-step salt precipitation. Enzyme and Microbial Technology (39), 1103–1107. doi:10.1016/j.enzmictec.2006.02.013

Oerke EC, Dehne HW. 2004. Safeguarding production-losses in major crops and the role of crop protection. Crop Protection 23, 275-285. doi:10.1016/j.cropro.2003.10.001

Oludemokun AA. 1976. Effect of temperature and relative humidity on mould deterioration of Stored Kolanuts. Plant Report 60, 1008-1010.

Orden MEM, Patricio MG, Canoy VV. 1994. Extent of pesticide use in vegetable production in Nueva Ecija: Empirical evidence and policy implications. Research and Development Highlights. Central Luzon State University, Republic of the Philippines. pp. 196-213.

Owusu DO. 2012. Effect of crude ethanolic leaf extract of soursop (Annona muricata L.) on eggplant shoot and fruit borer (Leucinodes orbonalis Guen.). Thesis. University of Cape Coast, Ghana.

Pandey N, Dushyant B. 2011. Phytochemical and pharmacological review on Annona squamosa Linn. International Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Sciences 2(4), 1404-12.

Patnaik HP. 2000. Flower and fruit infestation by brinjal shoot and fruit borer, Leucinodes orbonalis Guen. – damage potential vs. weather. Vegetable Science 27 (1), 82-83.

Rahman AKMZ. 1997. Screening of 28 brinjal line for resistance tolerance against the brinjal shoot and fruit borer. Annual Report. Entomology Division, Bangladesh Agriculture Research Institute, Joydebhpur, Ghazipur. Bangladesh. pp. 32-35.

Rao BS. 1975. Maladies of  Hevea  in  Malaysia. Rubber Research Institute of Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur 40, 108. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0007-1536(77)80180-0

Schroeder D, Goeden RG. 1986. The search for arthropod natural enemies of introduced weeds for biocontrol-in theory and practice. Biocontrol News Information 7, 147-155.

Solomon BP. 1981. Response of a host-specific herbivore to resource density, relative abundance and phenology. Ecology 62, 1205-14. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1937285

Southwood TRE. 1972. The insect/plant relationship-an evolutionary perspective. In van Emden. H. F. (ed.) Insectl Plant Relationships. Symposia of the Royal Entomological Society of London 6.Blackwell Scientific Publications, London. p. 3-30.

Srinivasan R. 2009. Insect and mite pests on eggplant: a field guide for identification and management. AVRDC – The World Vegetable Center, Shanhua, Taiwan. AVRDC Publication 09, 729-64.

Steel R, Torrie J. 1980. Principles and procedures of statistics: A biometrical approach. McGraw-Hill, New York, 2nd ed xxi, 633.

SUSVEG-Asia. 2007. SUSVEG-Asia Brinjal integrated pest management (IPM).

Walraevens V, Jaziri M, Van Beeumen J, Schnek AG, Kleinschmidt T, Looze Y. 1993. Isolation and preliminary characterization of the cysteine proteinases from the latex of Carica candamarcensis Hook. Biological chemistry Hoppe-Seyler 374, 501–506.

Wapshere AJ. 1985. Effectiveness of biological control agents for weeds: Present quandaries. Agric. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 13, 261-280. doi:10.1016/0167-8809(85)90015-5

Zelitch I. 1975. Improving the efficiency of photosynthesis. Science 188, 626-33. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.188.4188.626


Style Switcher

Select Layout
Chose Color
Chose Pattren
Chose Background