Habitat preference and congregation sites of House sparrow (Passer domesticus) in the rural and suburban areas of Ganjam district, Odisha

Paper Details

Research Paper 01/01/2019
Views (391) Download (12)

Habitat preference and congregation sites of House sparrow (Passer domesticus) in the rural and suburban areas of Ganjam district, Odisha

Umakanta Behera, Gitanjali Mishra
Int. J. Biosci.14( 1), 510-519, January 2019.
Certificate: IJB 2019 [Generate Certificate]


The bird House sparrow is associated with human habitation. The present study was carried out in different rural and urban areas of Ganjam district of state Odisha, India to find out the preferred habitats and congregation sites. Different environmental factors such as foliage cover, water and food sources, mobile tower and house sparrow number were determined by implementing line transect, quadrate sampling, field observation, direct counting and search and count methods. It has been found that the habitats and congregation sites are present in discrete patches along the rural and urban gradients. The house sparrow inhabiting sites have significantly more thatched houses, water sources and soil arthropods as compared to the non-inhabiting sites. All the inhabiting sites have moderate to high percentage of foliage cover (67.887±2.539%) although there was no significant difference in the mobile tower number between these sites. No significant correlation was found between the population size and different environmental factor except thatched house number which showed a small positive correlation (r2= 0.3954) being the most influential factor in determining the population size in an area. The mass dispersal or death due to sudden habitat destruction by cyclonic storm has deserted some habitats in spite of the presence of all the supporting environmental factors. The analysis brought the conclusion that the habitat preference is not due to a single factor rather all the factors work together along with an influential factor like thatched house in making the site suitable for the bird to breed and sustain.


Anderson TR. 2006. Biology of ubiquitous house sparrow. Oxford: Oxford University Press p. 273-275.

Blair RB. 1999. Birds and butterflies along an urban gradient: surrogate-tax for assessing biodiversity? Ecological Application 9(1), 164-170.

Broun M. 1972. Apparent migratory behavior in the House sparrow. The Auk: Ornithological Advances 89(1), p. 187-189.

Clement P, Harris A, Davis J. 1993. Finches and sparrows: an Identification Guide. London: Christopher Helm p. 463-465.

Confled RH. 1941. Application of the intercept method in sampling range vegetation. Journal of Forestry 39, p. 388-394.

Crick HQP, Robinson RA, Appleton GF, Clerk NA, Rickard AD. 2002. Investigation in to the causes of the decline of starlings and house sparrows in Great Britain. In: Crick HQP, Ed. BTO research report No.290. Norfolk, U.K.: British Trust For Ornithology (BTO) p. 1-9.

Droscher VB. 1992. Unse Spatz piepst das Lied von Tod. Bunte 30(1), p.78-81.

Dyer MI, Pinowski J, Pinowska B. 1977. Granivorous birds in ecosystem. In: Dyer MI Ed. population dynamics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press p. 53-10.

Everaert J, Bauwens D. 2007. A possible effect of electromagnetic radiation from the mobile base stations on the number of breeding house sparrow (Passer domesticus). Electromagnetic biology and medicine 26, p. 63-72.

Gorski W, Antczk J. 1999. Breeding loses in an urban population of the collared dove Streptopelia decaocto in Slupsk, Poland. Acta Ornitholigica 34(2), p. 191-198.

Hanley TA. 1978. A comparison of the line interception and quadrate estimation methods of determining shrub canopy coverage. Journal of range management 31, p. 60-62.

Heij CJ. 1985. Comparative ecology of House sparrow Passer domesticus in rural, suburban and urban situations. PhD thesis, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam p. 175

Kler TK, Kumar M, Dhatt JS. 2015. Study on the population of house sparrow Passer domesticus in urban and rural areas of Panjab. International journal of advance research 9(3), p. 1339-1347.

Lowther PE, Cink CL. 1992. House sparrow (Passer domesticus). In: Lowther PE, Ed. The birds of North America. Philadelphia, Unite States: Cornell Lab of Ornithology p. 81-89.

Martin LB II, Fitzgerald L. 2005. A test of novelty in invading house sparrows, Passer domesticus. Behavioral Ecology 16(4), p. 702-707.

Mason CF. 2006. Avian species richness and the numbers in the built environment: can new housing developments be good for birds? Biodiversity and conservation 15, 2365-2378.

Mishra G, Behere UK, Pattnaik S. 2017. Response of house sparrow (Passer domesticus) towards artificial nest box in rural areas. Indian journal of biology 4(2), p. 126-131.

Moller AP, Diaz M, Flensted-Jensen E, Grim T, Ibanez-Alamo JD. 2012. High urban population density of birds reflects their timing of urbanization. Oecologia 170, p. 867-875.

Monika G. 2005. Preliminary survey of house sparrow Passer domesticus in three areas of Haridwar, Uttarakhand. M.Sc. Thesis, Gurukul Kangri University, Haridwar, India p. 1-7.

Rajasekhar S, Venkatesha MG. 2008. Occurrence of house sparrow, Passer domesticus indicus in and around Bangalore. Current Science 94(4), p. 446-449.

Shaw LM, Chamberlin D, Evans M. 2008. The house sparrows (Passer domesticus) in urban areas: reviewing a possible link between post- decline distribution and human socio economic status. Journal of ornithology 149, p. 293-299.

Singh R, Kour DN, Ahamad F, Sahi DN. 2013. The cause of decline of house sparrow (Passer domesticus Linnaeus 1758) in urban and suburban areas of Jamu region, J and K. Munis Entomology & Zoology 8(2), p. 803-811

Skorka P, Martyka R, Wojcik JD. 2006. Species richness of breeding birds at a landscape scale: which habitat is the most important? Acta Ornithologica 41, p. 49-54.

Summer-smith JD. 1963. The House sparrows. In: Summer-smith JD, Ed. New naturalist, 1st edition. London: Collins p. 34-35.

Summer-smith JD. 1988. The sparrows. In: Summer-smith JD, Ed. illustrated by Robert Gillmor, Calton, Staffs. England: T & D. Poyeser p. 293-296.

Tamialojc L. 1976. The urban population of the woodpigeon Columba palimbus Linnaeus, 1758, in Europe: its origin, increase and distribution. Acta Zoologica Cracoviensia 21(18), p. 585-632.

Vincent K. 2005. Investigating the causes of decline of the urban house sparrow Passer domesticus in Britain. PhD thesis, DE Montfort University, Leicester p. 2-3

Wilkinson N. 2006. Factors influencing the small-scale distribution of House sparrows Passer domesticus in a suburban environment. Bird study 53, p. 39-46.

Wooton SR, Field R, Langston RHW, Gibbons DW. 2002. Homes for birds: the use of houses for nesting by birds in the UK. British Birds 95, p. 586-592.