Key Words: Blood cells count, Normal values, Anaemia, Adolescents, Abidjan (Côte d’Ivoire)
Int. J. Biosci.2(6), 1-12, June 2012
In Côte d’Ivoire, haematological status of adolescents has not yet been established. The aim of this study was to evaluate the haematological profile of healthy adolescents in Abidjan (Côte d’Ivoire). Our study was undertaken with 847 healthy volunteers adolescents aged from 12 to 18 years. They were selected in three municipalities of Abidjan. The complete blood cells count was analyzed for each of these adolescents and each blood sample was screened for hemoglobin pathologies by using electrophoresis on cellulose acetate membranes at alkaline pH. The values of all parameters in the complete blood cells count were normal for 9.4 % against 90.6 % with the abnormal haematologi cal status. In the abnormal values, the prevalence of anaemia was 53.1 % with 43.3 % of microcytic hypochromic anaemia, 16.9 % of normocytic normochromic anaemia, 15.6 % of normocytic hypochromic anaemia and 1.1 % of microcytic hypochromic anaemia. The microcytosis (44.4%), hypochromia (60.3 %), leukopenia (35.1 %), neutropenia (13 %), monocytopenia (4.1 %), thrombocytopenia (6.4 %) and decreased proportion of eosinophils (9.8 %) were also observed in total study population. In addition, a significant difference was indicated between both sexes for mean values of the red cells blood count, hemoglobin, hematocrit, thromcytes, eosinophils, and monocytes. In this context, the boys showed generally the greatest mean values of these parameters compared to girls. Typing of hemoglobin showed that 15.5 % of subjects presented abnormal hemoglobins corresponding to 17 % for boys and 13.9 % for girls. The components of the abnormal hemoglobin status have included the hemoglobin AS, SS, AC, CC and SC. The study showed that the haematological profile of adolescents is more altered in Abidjan (Côte d’Ivoire). In addition, our investigations revealed also that over half (53.1 %) adolescents indicated anaemia. In the same vein, all the white blood count parameters were modified in adolescent’s population. Future studies in all municipalities of Abidjan, in all regions of Côte d’Ivoire for a representative sample will lead to real values of the parameters of normal blood count of adolescents in our country.
Abu-Samak M, Khuzaie R, Abu-Hasheesh M, Jaradeh M, Fawzi M. 2008. Relationship of Vitamin B12 Deficiency with Overweight in Male Jordanian Youth. Journal of Applied Sciences 8, 3060-3063.
Akhigbe RE, Bamidele JO, Abodunrin OL. 2010. Seroprevalence of HIV Infection in Kwara, Nigeria. International Journal of Virology 6, 158-163.
Angoue PY, Nahounou MB, Dominique JE, Yao JD, Ehouman EE. 2008. Prevalence of anaemia and iron deficiency in women of childbearing age, pregnant and nonpregnant. Annales de Biologie Clinique Quebec. 45, 24–28.
Archambeau-Breton M, Dommergues JP, Ducot B, Rossignol C, Yvart J, Techerna G.Reevaluation of the utility of mean cell heamoglobin (MCH) screening of infants for iron deficieny. Nouvelle Revue Française d’Hématologie 31, 307–309.
Assobayire SF, Adou P, Davidsson I, Cook DJ, Hurell F. 2001. Prevalence of iron deficiency with and without concurrent anemia ion population groups with high prevalence of malaria and other infectuions: a studiy in Côte d’Ivoire. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 74, 776-782.
Atanda HL, Bon JC, Force-Barge P, Porte J, Rodier J. 1997. Contribution a letude de la prevalence de lanemie chez lenfant en milieu tropical: C.M.S. Elf-Congo-Pointe-Noire = Study of the prevalence of anemia in children in tropical zone. Médecine d’Afrique Noire 44, 40-44.
Bernard J, Levy JP, Varet B, Clauvel JP, Rain JD, Sultan Y. 1996. Hematology. 8th Edn., Masson, Paris, 68-74.
Blum RW. 1991. Global trends in adolescent health. Journal of American Medicine Association 265, 2711-2719.
Diagne I, Fall A-L, Diagne-Gueye NR, Déme-Ly I, Lopez-Sall P, Faye C-E, Sarr M, Camara B, Sow H-D. 2010. Hypochromic microcytic anemia in pediatrics: Frequency and response to the iron treatment. A study in outpatients in Albert Royer National Children Hospital of Dakar, Senegal. Journal de Pédiatrie et Puériculture 23, 119-124.
Dillon JC. 2000. Prevention of iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia in tropical areas. Médecine Tropicale 60, 83-91.
Eslami S, Karandish M, Marandi SM, Zand-Moghaddam A. 2010. Effects of Whey Protein Supplementation on Hematological Parameters in Healthy Young Resistance Male Athletes. Journal of Applied Sciences 10, 991-995.
Gonzalez-Silva M, Bernal MD, Cabezon I. 1994. Hematologic values and iron levels in a rural student population. Sangre 39, 99-103.
Guilhot F. 1992. Hyperleukocytosis with Neutrophila. In: Haematology of Bernard Dreyfus, Breton-Gorius, J., F. Reyes, H. Rochant, J. Rosa and J.P. Vernant (Eds.). Medecine-Sciences Flammarion, Paris, 567-568.
Kanoa BJ, Zabut BM, Hamed AT. 2011. Nutritional Status Compared with Nutritional History of Preschool Aged Children in Gaza Strip: Cross Sectional Study. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 10, 282-290.
Khattak MMAK, Ali S. 2010. Malnutrition and Associated Risk Factors in Pre-School Children (2-5 Years) in District Swabi (NWFP)-Pakistan. Journal of Medical Sciences 10, 34-39.
Massawe SN, Ronquist G, Nyströn L, Lindmark G. 2002. Iron status and iron deficiency anaemia in adolescents in a Tanzanian suburban area. Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation 54, 137-144.
Maurage C. 1999. Iron status in adolescents. Journal de Pédiatrie et Puériculture 12, 204-207.
Mian RMA, Ali M, Ferroni PA, Underwood P. 2002. The Nutritional Status of School-Aged Children in an Urban Squatter Settlement in Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 1, 121-123.
Navarro JF, Macia ML. 1997. Hypochomie red cells as an indicator of iron deficiency. Journal of Rheumatology. 24, 804-805.
Paknahad Z, Mahboob S, Omidvar N, Ebrahimi M, Ostadrahimi A, Afiatmilani SH. 2008. Body Mass Index and its Relationship with Haematological indices in Iranian Women. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 7, 377-380.
Quaranta JP, Pesce A, Cassuto JP. 1990. Haemogram. Masson, Paris, pp: 83-105.
Rakoto AO, Ratsitoralina M, Pfister P, Laganier R, Dromigny JA. 2000. Haemogramm normal values in Madagascar. Archives de l’Institut Pasteur de Madagascar 66, 68-71.
Savage D, Gandgaidzo I, Lindenbaun J, Kiire C, Mikiibi JM, Moyo A, Gwanzura C, Mudenge B, Bennie A, Sitima J, Stabler SP, Allen RH. 1994. Vitamin B12 deficiency is the primary cause of megaloblastic anaemia in Zimbabwe. British Journal of Haematology 86, 844–850.
Saxena S, Wong ET. 1990. Heterogeneity of common hematologie parameters among racial, ethnic and gender subgroups. Archives of Pathology & Laboratory. Medicine 114, 715–719.
Schneider RG. 1973. Development in Laboratory Diagnosis. In: Sickle Cell Disease: Diagnosis, Management, Education and Research, Abramson, H., J.F. Bertles and D.L. Wethers (Eds.). Mosby, Louis, 230–243.
Shiga S, Koyanagi I, Kannagi R. 1990. Clinical reference values for laboratory hematology tests calculated using the iterative truncation method with correction: Part 1. Reference values for erythrocyte count, hemoglobin quantity, hematocrit and other erythrocyte parameters including MCV, MCH, MCHC and RDW. Rinsho Byori 38, 93-103.
FSH (French Society of Haematology-Pedagogical committee). 2006. Hémogramme : indications et Haemogram: Indication and interpretation-Evaluation, 121-145.
Straetmans N. 2002. Anemias: Dignosis and etiology. Louvain Médical 121, S54-S59.
Suharno D, West CE, Muhila, Karyadi D, Hautvast JG. 1993. Supplementation with vitamin A and iron for nutritional anaemia in pregnant women in west Java, Indonesia. Lancet 342, 1325–1328.
Taylor MR, Holland CV, Spencer R, Jackson JF, O’Connor GI, O’Donnell JR. 1997. Haematological reference ranges for schoolchidren. Clinical and Laboratory Haematology 19, 1–15.
Turconi SJ, Turconi VL. 1992. Iron deficiency anaemia: Impact on child population. Pediatria Moderna 28, 107-112.
UNCEF/UNU/WHO. 2001. Iron deficiency aneamia: assessment, prevention, and control. WHO/NHD/01.3 Geneva,Switzerland: WHO. U.N.C.E.F./U.N.U./W.H.O. Iron deficiency aneamia: assessment, prevention, and control. WHO/NHD/01.3 Geneva, Switzerland: WHO.
Wajcman H, Lantz B, Girot R. 1992. Diseases of the Red Cell. INSERM Medecine-Sciences, Paris, 81-456.
Williams WJ. 1983. Examination of blood. In: Hematology, Williams, W.J., E. Beutler, J. Ersslev and M.A. Licntman (Eds.). McGraw-Hill, New York, 36-44.
WHO. 2001. Iron deficiency anemia: assement prevention and control-a guide for programme managers. NHD01 Geneva WHO.
Yip R, Dallman P. 1988. The role of inflammation and iron deficiency as causes of anemia. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 48, 1295-1300.