Health risk assessment and estimation of heavy metal Cd, Cr and Pb in drinking water of district Swat, Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

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Research Paper 01/06/2017
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Health risk assessment and estimation of heavy metal Cd, Cr and Pb in drinking water of district Swat, Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

Sabiha, Dr. Maimoona Sabir, Naureen Aurangzeb, Dr Abdullah Khan, Dr Sobia Nisa
J. Bio. Env. Sci.10( 6), 258-265, June 2017.
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Presence of heavy metals in ground water used for drinking purpose poses serious contamination hazard to human health. The aim of present study was to estimate concentration of selected heavy metals (cadmium, chromium and lead) in water used for drinking in District Swat, KPK, Pakistan. After taking opinion of the expert from Pakistan council research in water resources (PCRWR) and site survey, 160 ground water samples were collected from different sources and area of the District Swat. Concentrations of heavy metals; cadmium, chromium and lead in the water samples were estimated using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Chronic daily intake (CDIs) and hazard quotient (HQ) for both adult and children was calculated. Minimum and maximum concentrations of cadmium in the water was 0.002 mg/L and 0.009 mg/L respectively, chromium in the water samples was 0.011 mg/L to 0.015 mg/L and concentration of lead in the water samples ranges from 0.03 mg/L to 0.8 mg/L. The maximum concentration of lead in the drinking water was higher than toxicity threshold limits of WHO and PCRWR drinking water standards. CDIs and mean concentration of heavy metals in water sources of the study area was observed in decreasing order, such as: Cd>Cr>Pb and the HQ of all heavy metals was lower than one. From study it is concluded that water used for drinking of the studied area was contaminated with heavy metals and constant ingestion of these heavy metals can affect the health of local community on the longer run.


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