Welcome to International Network for Natural Sciences | INNSpub

Paper Details

Research Paper | June 1, 2017

| Download 3

Health risk assessment and estimation of heavy metal Cd, Cr and Pb in drinking water of district Swat, Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

Sabiha, Dr. Maimoona Sabir, Naureen Aurangzeb, Dr Abdullah Khan, Dr Sobia Nisa

Key Words:

J. Bio. Env. Sci.10(6), 258-265, June 2017


JBES 2017 [Generate Certificate]


Presence of heavy metals in ground water used for drinking purpose poses serious contamination hazard to human health. The aim of present study was to estimate concentration of selected heavy metals (cadmium, chromium and lead) in water used for drinking in District Swat, KPK, Pakistan. After taking opinion of the expert from Pakistan council research in water resources (PCRWR) and site survey, 160 ground water samples were collected from different sources and area of the District Swat. Concentrations of heavy metals; cadmium, chromium and lead in the water samples were estimated using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Chronic daily intake (CDIs) and hazard quotient (HQ) for both adult and children was calculated. Minimum and maximum concentrations of cadmium in the water was 0.002 mg/L and 0.009 mg/L respectively, chromium in the water samples was 0.011 mg/L to 0.015 mg/L and concentration of lead in the water samples ranges from 0.03 mg/L to 0.8 mg/L. The maximum concentration of lead in the drinking water was higher than toxicity threshold limits of WHO and PCRWR drinking water standards. CDIs and mean concentration of heavy metals in water sources of the study area was observed in decreasing order, such as: Cd>Cr>Pb and the HQ of all heavy metals was lower than one. From study it is concluded that water used for drinking of the studied area was contaminated with heavy metals and constant ingestion of these heavy metals can affect the health of local community on the longer run.


Copyright © 2017
By Authors and International Network for
Natural Sciences (INNSPUB)
This article is published under the terms of the Creative
Commons Attribution Liscense 4.0

Health risk assessment and estimation of heavy metal Cd, Cr and Pb in drinking water of district Swat, Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

Agriculture Statistics of Pakistan. 2011. Government of Pakistan, Statistics division, Pakistan Bureau of Statistics. www.gilanifoundation. com/homepage/Free_Pub/AGRI/AGRICULTURAL_STATISTICS_OF_PAKISTAN_2010_2011.pdf.

Alam S, Ahmed S, Bangash FK. 2008. Drinking water quality of swat district. Journal of chemical Society of Pakistan 30, 1-10.

Ali MM, Ali ML, Islam MS, Rahman MZ. 2016. Preliminary assessment of heavy metals in water and sediment of Karnaphuli River, Bangladesh. Environment Nanotechnology, Monitoring & Management 5, 27-35.

District Census Report. 1998. Population Census Organization, Govt. of Pakistan, Islamabad.

Fernández-Luqueño F, López-Valdez F, Gamero-Melo P. 2013. Heavy metal pollution in drinking water: a global risk for human health: A review. African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology 7, 567-584.

Hussain R, Ali L, Hussain I, Khattak SA. 2014. Source identification and assessment of physicochemical parameters and heavy metals in drinking water of Islampur area, Swat, Pakistan. Journal of Himalayan Earth Sciences 47, 99-106.

Khan K, Lu Y, Khan H, Zakir S, Khan S, Khan AA. 2013. Health risks associated with heavy metals in the drinking water of Swat, northern Pakistan. Journal of Environmental Science 25, 2003-2013.

Muhammad S, Shah MT, Khan S. 2011. Health risk assessment of heavy metals and their source apportionment in drinking water of Kohistan region, northern Pakistan. Micro chemical Journal 98, 334-43.

National Environmental Quality Standards (NEQS). 2000. Pakistan Environmental Legislation, Ministry of Environment, Government of Pakistan.

Nawab J, Ali S, Rauf A, Rehman UU, Khan AA, Sajjad M, Khan W. 2015. Health risk associated with heavy metals via consumption of surface and groundwater in District Shangla, Pakistan. Journal of Himalayan Earth Sciences 48, 62-73

Pakistan Council of Research in Water Resources (PCRWR). 2008. National Standards for Drinking Water Quality. (Verified November 15, 2011). www.environment.gov.pk/act-rules/ DWQStdMAY2007.pdf.

Rajaei Q, Pourkhabbaz A, Hesari MS. 2012. Assessment of Heavy Metals Health Risk of Groundwater in Ali Abad Katoul Plian. Journal of North Khorasan University of Medical sciences 4, 155-62.

Rajvaidya N, Markendey DK. 2005. Water: Characteristics and properties. A.P.H publishing corporation New Delhi.

Sakizadeh M, Mirzaei R. 2016. Health Risk Assessment of Fe, Mn, Cu, Cr in Drinking Water in some Wells and Springs of Shush and Andimeshk, Khuzestan Province, Southern Iran. Iranian Journal of Toxicology 10, 29-35.

Singh A, Sharma RK, Agrawal M, Marshall FM. 2010. Health risk assessment of heavy metals via dietary intake of foodstuffs from the wastewater irrigated site of a dry tropical area of India. Food and Chemical Toxicology 48, 611-9.

Taghipour H, Mosaferi M, Pourakbar M, Armanfar F. 2012. Heavy Metals Concentrations in Groundwater Used for Irrigation. Health Promotion Perspectives 2, 205-210.

US EPA. 2005. Guidelines for carcinogen risk assessment. Risk Assessment Forum, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. EPA/630/P- 03/001F.

World Health Organization (WHO).  2011. Guidelines for drinking-water quality, fourth edition. (verified November 15, 2011). www.whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2011/9789241548151_eng.pdf

World Health Organization (WHO). 2006. Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater, excreta and grey water: Wastewater use in agriculture (Vol II), World Health Organization. Geneva.


Style Switcher

Select Layout
Chose Color
Chose Pattren
Chose Background