Welcome to International Network for Natural Sciences I INNSpub

Paper Details

Research Paper | November 1, 2021

| Download 2

Health risk assessment of residents of the industrial estate around pharmaceutical industries near Lahore, Punjab

Saima Hussain, Mahnoor Malik, Zahra Asghar, Numrah Nisar, Tahira Aziz Mughal

Key Words:

Int. J. Biosci.19(5), 100-121, September 2021

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12692/ijb/19.5.100-121


IJB 2021 [Generate Certificate]


The main objective of the study was an assessment of potential health risks associated with pharmaceutical residues in drinking water. The study was based on a multi-method perspective, i.e., visits, surveys and questionnaires.  Near the area of Sundar Industrial Estates, respondents from four different villages around pharmaceutical industries were selected for the collection of data. The present study focuses on the fate, occurrence and toxicity of pharmaceutical drugs on human health. The findings of the study revealed that 59.2% village residents were suffering from different health issues due to drinking pernicious water. Reproductive problems and gastrointestinal illnesses were found to be the most common health problems among respondents. About 64.92 % of the respondents had reproductive problems from which pregnancy complications and menstrual disorders were majorly found in females. Socio-economic factors such as education, income and age were found to be the other contributing factors in deciding the health status of respondents. Sources of drinking water and their average distances from pharmaceutical industrial estates were assessed as crucial factors for the occurrence of health problems. The Mean±SEM value of BMI of respondents was measured as 24.60±0.246 and a range was measured as 17.6-33.8 kg/m². Hormonal changes causing reproductive problems among females were found to be the most prominent health effect due to drinking water contaminated with pharmaceutical residue.  The most dominant reproductive problems were found to be pregnancy complications and menstrual disorders. The sources of drinking water and their average distances from the pharmaceutical industrial estates are the most crucial factors for determining the poor health status.


Copyright © 2021
By Authors and International Network for
Natural Sciences (INNSPUB)
This article is published under the terms of the Creative
Commons Attribution Liscense 4.0

Health risk assessment of residents of the industrial estate around pharmaceutical industries near Lahore, Punjab

Adler NE, Newman K. 2002. Socio-economic disparities in health: Pathways and policies. Health Affairs 21, 60-76.

Aprajita PN, Panwar NK, Sharma RS. 2011. A study on the lung function tests in petrol pump workers. Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research 5, 1046-1050.

Ashbolt NJ. 2004. Microbial contamination of drinking water and disease outcomes in developing regions. Toxicology 198(1-3), 229-238.

Baranowska I, Kowalski B. 2012. A rapid ultra-high performance liquid chromatography method for the simultaneous determination of drugs from different therapeutic groups in surface water and wastewater. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 89(8-14), 0634-7.

Behera SK, Kim HW, Oh JE, Park HS. 2011. Occurrence and removal of antibiotics, hormones and several other pharmaceuticals in wastewater treatment plants of the largest industrial city of Korea. Science of the Total Environment 409(20), 4351-4360.

Bottoni P, Caroli S, Caracciolo AB. 2010. Pharmaceuticals as priority water contaminants. Toxicological and Environmental Chemistry 92(3), 549-565.

Bound JP, Voulvoulis N. 2004. Pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment. Chemosphere 56(11), 1143-1155.

Boxall ABA, Keller VDJ, Straub JO, Monteiro SC, Fussell R, Williams RJ. 2014. Exploiting monitoring data in environmental exposure modelling and risk assessment of pharmaceuticals. Environment International 73(9), 176-185.

Bruce GM, Pleus RC, Snyder SA. 2010. Toxicological relevance of pharmaceuticals in drinking water. Environmental Science and Technology 44(14), 5619-5626.

Caldwell DJ, Mastrocco F, Margiotta-Casaluci L, Brooks BW. 2014. An integrated approach for prioritizing pharmaceuticals found in the environment for risk assessment, monitoring and advanced research. Chemosphere 8(115), 4-12.

Caliman FA, Gavrilescu M. 2009. Pharmaceuticals, personal care products and endocrine disrupting agents in the environment. CLEAN–Soil, Air, Water 37(45), 277-303.

Chander V, Sharma B, Negi V, Aswal RS, Singh P, Singh R, Dobhal R. 2016. Pharmaceutical compounds in drinking water. Journal of Xenobiotics 6(1), 8-9.

Cockerham WC. 2005. Health lifestyle theory and the convergence of agency and structure. Journal of Health and Social Behavior 46(1), 51-67.

Collier AC. 2007. Pharmaceutical contaminants in potable water: Potential concerns for pregnant women and children. Eco Health 4(2), 164-171.

Crump JA, Okoth GO, Slutsker L, Ogaja DO, Keswick BH, Luby SP. 2004. Effect of point of use disinfection, flocculation and combined flocculation–disinfection on drinking water quality in Western Kenya. Journal of Applied Microbiology 97(1), 225-231.

Dars S, Sayed K, Yousufzai Z. 2014. Relationship of menstrual irregularities to body mass index and nutritional status in adolescent girls. Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences 30(1), 141.

Daughton CG. 2010. Pharmaceutical ingredients in drinking water: Overview of occurrence and significance of human exposure: Contaminants of emerging concern in the environment. Ecological and Human Health Considerations 1048, 9-68.

Deaton A. 2003. Health, income, and inequality. National Bureau of Economic Research Reporter: Research Summary.

Deblonde T, Hartemann P. 2013. Environmental impact of medical prescriptions: Assessing the risks and hazards of persistence, bioaccumulation and toxicity of pharmaceuticals. Public Health 127(4), 312-317.

Ferrari B, Paxeus N, Giudice RL, Pollio A, Garric J. 2003. Ecotoxicological impact of pharmaceuticals found in treated wastewaters: A study of carbamazepine, clofibric acid, and diclofenac. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 55(3), 359-370.

Focazio MJ, Kolpin DW, Barnes KK,  Furlong ET, Meyer MT, Zaugg SD, Thurman ME. 2008. A national reconnaissance for pharmaceuticals and other organic wastewater contaminants in the United States: Untreated drinking water sources. Science of the Total Environment 402(2-3), 201-216.

Foster S, Hirata R., Gomes D, D’Elia M, Paris M. 2002. Ground water quality protection: A guide for water service companies, municipal authorities and environment agencies. Groundwater Quality Protection. The World Bank.

Glassmeyer ST, Hinchey EK, Boehme SE, Daughton CG, Ruhoy IS, Conerly O, Sykes K. 2009. Disposal practices for unwanted residential medications in the United States. Environment International 35(3), 566-572.

Hashm I, Farooq S, Qaiser S. 2009. Chlorination and water quality monitoring within a public drinking water supply in Rawalpindi Cantt area, Pakistan. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 158(1-4), 393.

Heberer T. 2002. Tracking persistent pharmaceutical residues from municipal sewage to drinking water. Journal of Hydrology 266(3-4), 175-189.

Iglesias A, Garrote L, Flores F, Moneo M. 2007. Challenges to manage the risk of water scarcity and climate change in the Mediterranean. Water Resources Management 21(5), 775-788.

Jones OA, Lester JN, Voulvoulis N. 2005. Pharmaceuticals: A threat to Drinking Water. Trends in Biotechnology 23(4), 163-167.

Jones OA, Voulvoulis N, Lester JN. 2005. Human pharmaceuticals in wastewater treatment processes. Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology 35(4), 401-427.

Jones OAH, Voulvoulis N, Lester JN. 2004. Potential ecological and human health risks associated with the presence of pharmaceutically active compounds in the aquatic environment. Critical Reviews in Toxicology 34(4), 335-350.

Keil F, Bechmann G, Kümmerer K, Schramm E. 2008. Systemic risk governance for pharmaceutical residues in drinking water. Ecological Perspectives for Science and Society 17(4), 355-361.

Khan GA, Berglund B, Khan KM, Lindgren PE, Fick J. 2013. Occurrence and abundance of antibiotics and resistance genes in river and near drug formulation facilities: A study in Pakistan. Public Library of Science One 8(6).

Khan U, Nicell J. 2015. Human health relevance of pharmaceutically active compounds in drinking water. The American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientist 17(3), 558-585.

Khanna I. 2012. Drug discovery in pharmaceutical industry: Productivity challenges and trends. Drug Discovery Today 17(19-20), 1088-1102.

Kolpin DW, Furlong ET, Meyer MT, Thurman EM, Zaugg SD, Barber LB, Buxton HT. 2002. Pharmaceuticals, hormones, and other organic wastewater contaminants in United States streams: A national reconnaissance. Environmental Science and Technology 36(6), 1202-1211.

Kumar A, Chang B, Xagoraraki I. 2010. Human health risk assessment of pharmaceuticals in water: Issues and challenges ahead. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 7(11), 3929-3953.

Kümmerer K. 2009. The presence of pharmaceuticals in the environment due to human use present knowledge and future challenges. Journal of Environmental Management 90(8), 2354-2366.

Leung HW, Jin L, Wei S, Tsui MMP, Zhou B, Jiao L, Lam PKS. 2013. Pharmaceuticals in Tap Water: Human health risk assessment and proposed monitoring framework in China.  Environmental Health Perspectives 121(7), 839-846.

Manickum T, John W. 2014. Occurrence, fate and environmental risk assessment of endocrine disrupting compounds at the wastewater treatment works in Pietermaritzburg, South Africa. Science of the Total Environment 468, 584-597.

Marmot M. 2002. The influence of income on health: Views of an epidemiologist. Health Affairs 21(2), 31-46.

Morteani G, Moller P, Fuganti A, Paces T. 2006. Input and fate of anthropogenic estrogens and gadolinium in surface water and sewage plants in the hydrological basin of Prague. Environmental Geochemistry and Health 28, 257-264.

Murray R, Uber J, Janke R. 2006. Model for estimating acute health impacts from consumption of contaminated drinking water. Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management 132(4), 293-299.

Overturf MD, Anderson JC, Pandelides Z, Beyger L, Holdway DA. 2015. Pharmaceuticals and personal care products: A critical review of the impacts on fish reproduction. Critical Reviews in Toxicology 45(6), 469-491.

Peng X, Yu Y, Tang C, Tan J, Huang Q, Wang Z. 2008. Occurrence of steroid estrogens, endocrine disrupting phenols, and acid pharmaceutical residues in urban riverine water of the Pearl River Delta, South China. Science of the Total Environment 397(1-3), 158-166.

Ramola B, Singh A. 2013. Heavy metal concentrations in pharmaceutical effluents of industrial area of Dehradun, India. Journal of Environmental and Analytical Toxicology 3(173), 2161-0525.

Robertson L, Gjerde B, Hansen EF, Stachurska-Hagen T. 2008. A water contamination incident in Oslo, Norway: A basis for discussion of boil-water notices and the potential for post-treatment contamination of drinking water supplies. Journal of Water and Health 7(1), 55-66.

Salgado R, Marques R, Noronha JP, Carvalho G, Oehmen A, Reis MA. 2012. Assessing the removal of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in a full-scale activated sludge plant. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 19, 1818-1827.

Schweitzer SO, Lu ZJ. 2018. Pharmaceutical economics and policy: Perspectives, promises, and problems. Oxford University Press.

Sharpe RM, Irvine DS. 2004. How strong is the evidence of a link between environmental chemicals and adverse effects on human reproductive health? British Medical Journal 328(7437), 447-451.

Spallek J, Zeeb H, Razum O. 2011. What do we have to know from migrants’ past exposures to understand their health status? A life course approach. Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 8(1), 6.

Stackelberg PE, Furlong ET, Meyer MT, Zaugg SD, Henderson AK, Reissman DB. 2004. Persistence of pharmaceutical compounds and other organic wastewater contaminants in a conventional drinking-water-treatment plant. Science of the Total Environment 329(1-3), 99-113.

Szymonik A, Lach J. 2012. Potential threats to the water environment. Environmental Protection Engineering 15, 249-265.

Tarazona JV, Escher BI, Giltrow E, Sumpter J, Knacker T. 2010. Targeting the environmental risk assessment of pharmaceuticals: Facts and fantasies. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management 6(S1), 603-613.

Valcárcel Y, Alonso SG, Rodríguez-Gil JL, Maroto RR, Gil A, Catalá M. 2011. Analysis of the presence of cardiovascular and analgesic/anti-inflammatory/antipyretic pharmaceuticals in river and drinking water of the Madrid Region in Spain. Chemosphere 82(7), 1062-1071.

Van Der Linden SC, Heringa MB, Man HY, Sonneveld E, Puijker LM,  Brouwer A, Van Der Burg B. 2008. Detection of multiple hormonal activities in wastewater effluents and surface water, using a panel of steroid receptor bioassays. Environmental Science and Technology 42 (15), 5814-5820.

Vulliet E, Cren-Olivé C, Grenier-Loustalot MF. 2011. Occurrence of pharmaceuticals and hormones in drinking water treated from surface waters. Environmental Chemistry Letters 9(1), 103-114.

Wang L, Ying GG, Zhao JL, Yang XB, Chen F, Tao R, Zhou LJ. 2010. Occurrence and risk assessment of acidic pharmaceuticals in the Yellow River, Hai River and Liao River of north China. Science of the Total Environment 408(16), 3139-3147.

Wennmalm Å, Gunnarsson B. 2005. Public health care management of water pollution with pharmaceuticals: Environmental classification and analysis of pharmaceutical residues in sewage water. Drug Information Journal 39(3), 291-297.

WHO. 2001. Water for health: Taking charge, Geneva. World Health Organization.

WHO. 2004. Guidelines for drinking water quality. World Health Organization.

Wiegel S, Aulinger A, Brockmeyer R, Harms H, Löffler J, Reincke H, Wanke A. 2004. Pharmaceuticals in the river Elbe and its tributaries. Chemosphere 57(2), 107-126.

Williams KE, Marsh WK, Rasgon NL. 2007. Mood disorders and fertility in women: A critical review of the literature and implications for future research. Human Reproduction Update 13(6), 607-616.

Zheng Q, Zhang R, Wang Y, Pan X. 2012. Occurrence and distribution of antibiotics in the Beibu Gulf, China: Impacts of river discharge and aquaculture activities. Marine Environmental Research 78, 26-33.

Zuccato E, Castiglioni S, Fanelli R, Reitano G, Bagnati R, Chiabrando C, Calamari D. 2006. Pharmaceuticals in the environment in Italy: Causes, occurrence, effects and control. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 13(1), 15-21.


Style Switcher

Select Layout
Chose Color
Chose Pattren
Chose Background